Spondylolisthesis is Common, Early, and Severe in Loeys-Dietz Syndrome

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Background: We studied the prevalence and treatment outcomes of spondylolisthesis in patients with Loeys-Dietz syndrome (LDS). Methods: Clinical data and lumbosacral imaging of 138 patients with LDS were reviewed. Spondylolisthesis (L4-L5 or L5-S1) and spondylolysis were characterized by multimodal imaging and correlated with clinical data. Treatments and outcomes were characterized for patients with spondylolisthesis. Associations were determined using the Fisher exact, Mann-Whitney, and Student t tests (α=0.05). Results: Twenty-four patients (17%) had spondylolysis and 23 (17%) had spondylolisthesis. Median age at spondylolisthesis diagnosis was 11 (interquartile range, 9.5) years. In patients in whom measurement was possible (n=20), mean (±SD) slip was 48% (±35%). Nineteen patients had L5-S1 slip and 4 had L4-L5 slip. Of the patients with spondylolisthesis, 5 had no evidence of spondylolysis; of those with spondylolysis, all but 6 had spondylolisthesis. Eleven patients with spondylolisthesis underwent posterior spinal fusion (PSF) to treat slip progression, pain, and/or neurological deficit. Spondylolisthesis recurred in 1 patient who underwent PSF with bone graft arthrodesis alone (no instrumentation). The other 10 patients underwent PSF with instrumentation and fusion. Three patients additionally underwent Bohlman interbody fusion. Two patients developed implant failure. S2 fixation was performed at revision to achieve fusion in these patients. Mean Meyerding grade improved in patients who underwent arthrodesis, from 3.9 (±1.2) to 1.9 (±1.3) (P=0.002). Complications were 2 cerebrospinal fluid leaks, 2 transient postoperative paresthesias, and 1 case each of pseudarthrosis at S1-S2, wound dehiscence, and transient urinary incontinence. No significant associations between LDS type and lumbosacral abnormalities were found. Conclusions: High-grade spondylolisthesis is common in LDS and usually associated with spondylolysis. Patients requiring surgery for spondylolisthesis present during childhood and do well after instrumented PSF. Interbody fusion and stabilization of S1 and S2 can prevent physeal deformation. LDS should be considered in patients with high-grade spondylolisthesis. Patients with LDS should be monitored for spondylolisthesis and spondylolysis starting when they are young. Level of Evidence:: Level IV—retrospective study.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalJournal of Pediatric Orthopaedics
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - Jun 8 2018

Fingerprint

Loeys-Dietz Syndrome
Spondylolisthesis
Spondylolysis
Spinal Fusion
Arthrodesis
Multimodal Imaging

Keywords

  • anterolisthesis
  • connective-tissue disorder
  • Loeys-Dietz syndrome
  • spinal fusion
  • spondylolisthesis
  • spondylolysis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine

Cite this

@article{04e9025b6bc84ec2a90000e3ce7fa570,
title = "Spondylolisthesis is Common, Early, and Severe in Loeys-Dietz Syndrome",
abstract = "Background: We studied the prevalence and treatment outcomes of spondylolisthesis in patients with Loeys-Dietz syndrome (LDS). Methods: Clinical data and lumbosacral imaging of 138 patients with LDS were reviewed. Spondylolisthesis (L4-L5 or L5-S1) and spondylolysis were characterized by multimodal imaging and correlated with clinical data. Treatments and outcomes were characterized for patients with spondylolisthesis. Associations were determined using the Fisher exact, Mann-Whitney, and Student t tests (α=0.05). Results: Twenty-four patients (17{\%}) had spondylolysis and 23 (17{\%}) had spondylolisthesis. Median age at spondylolisthesis diagnosis was 11 (interquartile range, 9.5) years. In patients in whom measurement was possible (n=20), mean (±SD) slip was 48{\%} (±35{\%}). Nineteen patients had L5-S1 slip and 4 had L4-L5 slip. Of the patients with spondylolisthesis, 5 had no evidence of spondylolysis; of those with spondylolysis, all but 6 had spondylolisthesis. Eleven patients with spondylolisthesis underwent posterior spinal fusion (PSF) to treat slip progression, pain, and/or neurological deficit. Spondylolisthesis recurred in 1 patient who underwent PSF with bone graft arthrodesis alone (no instrumentation). The other 10 patients underwent PSF with instrumentation and fusion. Three patients additionally underwent Bohlman interbody fusion. Two patients developed implant failure. S2 fixation was performed at revision to achieve fusion in these patients. Mean Meyerding grade improved in patients who underwent arthrodesis, from 3.9 (±1.2) to 1.9 (±1.3) (P=0.002). Complications were 2 cerebrospinal fluid leaks, 2 transient postoperative paresthesias, and 1 case each of pseudarthrosis at S1-S2, wound dehiscence, and transient urinary incontinence. No significant associations between LDS type and lumbosacral abnormalities were found. Conclusions: High-grade spondylolisthesis is common in LDS and usually associated with spondylolysis. Patients requiring surgery for spondylolisthesis present during childhood and do well after instrumented PSF. Interbody fusion and stabilization of S1 and S2 can prevent physeal deformation. LDS should be considered in patients with high-grade spondylolisthesis. Patients with LDS should be monitored for spondylolisthesis and spondylolysis starting when they are young. Level of Evidence:: Level IV—retrospective study.",
keywords = "anterolisthesis, connective-tissue disorder, Loeys-Dietz syndrome, spinal fusion, spondylolisthesis, spondylolysis",
author = "Kirby, {David J.} and Dietz, {Harry C} and Sponseller, {Paul David}",
year = "2018",
month = "6",
day = "8",
doi = "10.1097/BPO.0000000000001203",
language = "English (US)",
journal = "Journal of Pediatric Orthopaedics",
issn = "0271-6798",
publisher = "Lippincott Williams and Wilkins",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Spondylolisthesis is Common, Early, and Severe in Loeys-Dietz Syndrome

AU - Kirby, David J.

AU - Dietz, Harry C

AU - Sponseller, Paul David

PY - 2018/6/8

Y1 - 2018/6/8

N2 - Background: We studied the prevalence and treatment outcomes of spondylolisthesis in patients with Loeys-Dietz syndrome (LDS). Methods: Clinical data and lumbosacral imaging of 138 patients with LDS were reviewed. Spondylolisthesis (L4-L5 or L5-S1) and spondylolysis were characterized by multimodal imaging and correlated with clinical data. Treatments and outcomes were characterized for patients with spondylolisthesis. Associations were determined using the Fisher exact, Mann-Whitney, and Student t tests (α=0.05). Results: Twenty-four patients (17%) had spondylolysis and 23 (17%) had spondylolisthesis. Median age at spondylolisthesis diagnosis was 11 (interquartile range, 9.5) years. In patients in whom measurement was possible (n=20), mean (±SD) slip was 48% (±35%). Nineteen patients had L5-S1 slip and 4 had L4-L5 slip. Of the patients with spondylolisthesis, 5 had no evidence of spondylolysis; of those with spondylolysis, all but 6 had spondylolisthesis. Eleven patients with spondylolisthesis underwent posterior spinal fusion (PSF) to treat slip progression, pain, and/or neurological deficit. Spondylolisthesis recurred in 1 patient who underwent PSF with bone graft arthrodesis alone (no instrumentation). The other 10 patients underwent PSF with instrumentation and fusion. Three patients additionally underwent Bohlman interbody fusion. Two patients developed implant failure. S2 fixation was performed at revision to achieve fusion in these patients. Mean Meyerding grade improved in patients who underwent arthrodesis, from 3.9 (±1.2) to 1.9 (±1.3) (P=0.002). Complications were 2 cerebrospinal fluid leaks, 2 transient postoperative paresthesias, and 1 case each of pseudarthrosis at S1-S2, wound dehiscence, and transient urinary incontinence. No significant associations between LDS type and lumbosacral abnormalities were found. Conclusions: High-grade spondylolisthesis is common in LDS and usually associated with spondylolysis. Patients requiring surgery for spondylolisthesis present during childhood and do well after instrumented PSF. Interbody fusion and stabilization of S1 and S2 can prevent physeal deformation. LDS should be considered in patients with high-grade spondylolisthesis. Patients with LDS should be monitored for spondylolisthesis and spondylolysis starting when they are young. Level of Evidence:: Level IV—retrospective study.

AB - Background: We studied the prevalence and treatment outcomes of spondylolisthesis in patients with Loeys-Dietz syndrome (LDS). Methods: Clinical data and lumbosacral imaging of 138 patients with LDS were reviewed. Spondylolisthesis (L4-L5 or L5-S1) and spondylolysis were characterized by multimodal imaging and correlated with clinical data. Treatments and outcomes were characterized for patients with spondylolisthesis. Associations were determined using the Fisher exact, Mann-Whitney, and Student t tests (α=0.05). Results: Twenty-four patients (17%) had spondylolysis and 23 (17%) had spondylolisthesis. Median age at spondylolisthesis diagnosis was 11 (interquartile range, 9.5) years. In patients in whom measurement was possible (n=20), mean (±SD) slip was 48% (±35%). Nineteen patients had L5-S1 slip and 4 had L4-L5 slip. Of the patients with spondylolisthesis, 5 had no evidence of spondylolysis; of those with spondylolysis, all but 6 had spondylolisthesis. Eleven patients with spondylolisthesis underwent posterior spinal fusion (PSF) to treat slip progression, pain, and/or neurological deficit. Spondylolisthesis recurred in 1 patient who underwent PSF with bone graft arthrodesis alone (no instrumentation). The other 10 patients underwent PSF with instrumentation and fusion. Three patients additionally underwent Bohlman interbody fusion. Two patients developed implant failure. S2 fixation was performed at revision to achieve fusion in these patients. Mean Meyerding grade improved in patients who underwent arthrodesis, from 3.9 (±1.2) to 1.9 (±1.3) (P=0.002). Complications were 2 cerebrospinal fluid leaks, 2 transient postoperative paresthesias, and 1 case each of pseudarthrosis at S1-S2, wound dehiscence, and transient urinary incontinence. No significant associations between LDS type and lumbosacral abnormalities were found. Conclusions: High-grade spondylolisthesis is common in LDS and usually associated with spondylolysis. Patients requiring surgery for spondylolisthesis present during childhood and do well after instrumented PSF. Interbody fusion and stabilization of S1 and S2 can prevent physeal deformation. LDS should be considered in patients with high-grade spondylolisthesis. Patients with LDS should be monitored for spondylolisthesis and spondylolysis starting when they are young. Level of Evidence:: Level IV—retrospective study.

KW - anterolisthesis

KW - connective-tissue disorder

KW - Loeys-Dietz syndrome

KW - spinal fusion

KW - spondylolisthesis

KW - spondylolysis

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85048296899&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85048296899&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1097/BPO.0000000000001203

DO - 10.1097/BPO.0000000000001203

M3 - Article

C2 - 29889773

AN - SCOPUS:85048296899

JO - Journal of Pediatric Orthopaedics

JF - Journal of Pediatric Orthopaedics

SN - 0271-6798

ER -