Social scientists contend that significant advancements in religion and spirituality research may be achieved via incremental validity studies using the Five Factor Model of personality. This study examined spirituality and religiousness as predictors of elements of mental health, which was operationalized as a combination of purpose in life, resilience, satisfaction with life, and pro-social behavior, while controlling for personality. Based upon the findings from existing research, it was hypothesized that spirituality would predict purpose in life and satisfaction with life better than religiousness, and religiousness would predict resilience and pro-social behavior better than spirituality. Using Piedmont's ASPIRES instrument, and controlling for personality, a study was performed utilizing a series of hierarchical regression analyses. Results supported the incremental validity of the ASPIRES instrument (AR2 scores ranged from.06 to.02). Contrary to the hypotheses, spirituality was a better predictor than religiousness for resilience and for pro-social behavior.