Special Considerations/technical limitations of blood-oxygen-level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article


In this review, limitations affecting the results of presurgical mapping with blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) are discussed. There is a great need to standardize fMRI acquisition and analysis methods and establish guidelines to address quality control issues. Several national and international organizations are formulating guidelines and standards for both clinical and research applications of BOLD fMRI. Consensus regarding management of these issues will likely both improve the clinical standard of care and enhance future research applications of fMRI.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)705-715
Number of pages11
JournalNeuroimaging Clinics of North America
Issue number4
StatePublished - Nov 1 2014



  • Blood-oxygen-level-dependent
  • Functional magnetic resonance imaging
  • Special considerations
  • Technical limitations

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Clinical Neurology

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