Spatial Distribution Profiles of Emtricitabine, Tenofovir, Efavirenz, and Rilpivirine in Murine Tissues following in Vivo Dosing Correlate with Their Safety Profiles in Humans

Herana Kamal Seneviratne, Allyson N. Hamlin, Carley J.S. Heck, Namandjé N. Bumpus

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Emtricitabine (FTC), tenofovir (TFV), efavirenz (EFV), and rilpivirine (RPV) are currently used as components of HIV combination therapy. Although these drugs are widely used in antiretroviral therapy, several organ toxicities related to TFV and EFV have been observed clinically. TFV is associated with nephrotoxicity, whereas EFV-related hepatotoxicity and neurotoxicity have been reported. While the precise molecular mechanisms related to the above-mentioned clinically observed toxicities have yet to be elucidated, understanding the local tissue distribution profiles of these drugs could yield insights into their safety profiles. To date, the distributions of these drugs in tissue following in vivo exposure are poorly understood. Therefore, in this study, we employed a matrix-Assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging method to generate spatial distribution profiles of FTC, TFV, EFV, and RPV in mouse tissues following in vivo dosing of following drug regimens: TFV-FTC-EFV and TFV-FTC-RPV. For this study, liver, brain, kidney, spleen, and heart tissues were obtained from mice (n = 3) following separate oral administration of the above-mentioned drug regimens. Interestingly, EFV was detected in liver, brain, and heart following TFV-FTC-EFV treatment. Additionally, hydroxylated EFV, which encompasses the cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenated metabolites of EFV, was detected in liver, brain, spleen, and heart tissue sections. Notably, the tissue distribution profiles of RPV and hydroxylated RPV following in vivo dosing of TFV-FTC-RPV were different from EFV/hydroxylated EFV despite RPV belonging to the same drug class as EFV. In conclusion, the observed spatial distribution profiles of the study drugs are in agreement with their safety profiles in humans.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)655-665
Number of pages11
JournalACS Pharmacology and Translational Science
Volume3
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 14 2020

Keywords

  • antiretrovirals
  • efavirenz
  • emtricitabine
  • mass spectrometry imaging
  • rilpivirine
  • tenofovir

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology (medical)
  • Pharmacology

Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Spatial Distribution Profiles of Emtricitabine, Tenofovir, Efavirenz, and Rilpivirine in Murine Tissues following in Vivo Dosing Correlate with Their Safety Profiles in Humans'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this