We tested the ability of 1-year-old European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) to acquire songs while in different physiological states. Photorefractory males, with low testosterone levels, learned songs as completely and as accurately as photosensitive males in full reproductive condition. This indicates that song acquisition in 1-year-old males does not depend on high levels of androgens. The ability to learn songs during the nonbreeding season may reflect the high song output of potential tutors through most of the year, including the photorefractory period, and may facilitate increases in song repertoire size in adulthood.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Endocrine and Autonomic Systems
- Behavioral Neuroscience