Softening Hard Water Using High Frequency Spark Plasma Discharge

Talie Zarei, Shahriar Mirpour, Hamed Nikmaram, Mahmood Ghoranneviss, Sahar Mirpour, Davoud Dorranian

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Effects of high frequency spark plasma discharge as a time efficiency method in order to softening the natural hard water has been investigated experimentally. A very hard water sample with 331 ± 19 mg/l of CaCO3 hardness was used. The current and voltage of each spike was about 9.6 A and 3.5 kV respectively at 16 kHz frequency with 35 μs pulse width. Hard water was treated for 2, 4, 6, and 8 min. The concentration of CaCO3, Ca2+ ions, Mg2+ ions and pH as well as water conductivity was controlled before and after treatment. The concentration of CaCO3 dropped by 70%, after 8 min treatment. During the treatment, the pH had a fluctuation about 1.5 and finally remained in neutral state. Also the elemental composition, crystalline structure and morphology of the precipitates were identified. Molecular dynamics simulation revealed that the ozone and hydroxyl play important roles in the softening of the hard water.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)99-114
Number of pages16
JournalPlasma Chemistry and Plasma Processing
Volume37
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2017

Fingerprint

sparks
Electric sparks
softening
plasma jets
Plasmas
Water
water
Ions
Ozone
spikes
Hydroxyl Radical
ozone
Molecular dynamics
Precipitates
precipitates
ions
pulse duration
hardness
Hardness
molecular dynamics

Keywords

  • Calcium
  • Hard water
  • High frequency spark plasma
  • Magnesium
  • Precipitation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Chemical Engineering(all)
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films

Cite this

Softening Hard Water Using High Frequency Spark Plasma Discharge. / Zarei, Talie; Mirpour, Shahriar; Nikmaram, Hamed; Ghoranneviss, Mahmood; Mirpour, Sahar; Dorranian, Davoud.

In: Plasma Chemistry and Plasma Processing, Vol. 37, No. 1, 01.01.2017, p. 99-114.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Zarei, T, Mirpour, S, Nikmaram, H, Ghoranneviss, M, Mirpour, S & Dorranian, D 2017, 'Softening Hard Water Using High Frequency Spark Plasma Discharge', Plasma Chemistry and Plasma Processing, vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 99-114. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11090-016-9762-x
Zarei, Talie ; Mirpour, Shahriar ; Nikmaram, Hamed ; Ghoranneviss, Mahmood ; Mirpour, Sahar ; Dorranian, Davoud. / Softening Hard Water Using High Frequency Spark Plasma Discharge. In: Plasma Chemistry and Plasma Processing. 2017 ; Vol. 37, No. 1. pp. 99-114.
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