The optimal retreatment strategy for patients chronically infected with hepatitis C virus who experience virologic failure after treatment with direct-acting antiviral–based therapies remains unclear. In this multicenter, open-label, phase 2 study, we evaluated the efficacy and safety of a fixed-dose combination of sofosbuvir-velpatasvir (400 mg/100 mg) plus weight-adjusted ribavirin administered for 24 weeks in patients who did not achieve sustained virologic response after prior treatment with direct-acting antiviral regimens that included the nucleotide analogue nonstructural protein 5B inhibitor sofosbuvir plus the nonstructural protein 5A inhibitor velpatasvir with or without the nonstructural protein 3/4A protease inhibitor voxilaprevir. The primary efficacy endpoint was the proportion of patients achieving sustained virologic response at 12 weeks after the cessation of treatment. In total, 63 of 69 (91%; 95% confidence interval, 82%-97%) patients achieved sustained virologic response at 12 weeks, including 36 of 37 (97%; 95% confidence interval, 86%-100%) patients with hepatitis C virus genotype 1 infection, 13 of 14 (93%; 95% confidence interval, 66%-100%) patients with genotype 2 infection, and 14 of 18 (78%; 95% confidence interval, 52%-94%) patients with genotype 3 infection. Most adverse events were of mild or moderate severity. The most frequently reported adverse events were fatigue, nausea, headache, insomnia, and rash. One patient (1%) with genotype 1a infection discontinued all study drugs due to an adverse event (irritability). Conclusion: Retreatment of patients who previously failed direct-acting antiviral–based therapies with sofosbuvir-velpatasvir plus ribavirin for 24 weeks was well tolerated and effective, particularly those with hepatitis C virus genotype 1 or 2 infection. (Hepatology 2017;66:1083-1089).
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