Socioeconomic and racial disparities in cancer risk from air toxics in Maryland

Benjamin J. Apelberg, Timothy J. Buckley, Ronald H. White

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

We linked risk estimates from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's National Air Toxics Assessment (NATA) to racial and socioeconomic characteristics of census tracts in Maryland (2000 Census) to evaluate disparities in estimated cancer risk from exposure to air toxics by emission source category. In Maryland, the average estimated cancer risk across census tracts was highest from on-road sources (50% of total risk from nonbackground sources), followed by nonroad (25%), area(23%), and major sources(<1%). Census tracts in the highest quartile defined by the fraction of African-American residents were three times more likely to be high risk (> 90th percentile of risk) than those in the lowest quartile (95% confidence interval, 2.0-5.0). Conversely, risk decreased as the proportion of whites increased (p <0.001). Census tracts in the lowest quartile of socioeconomic position, as measured by various indicators, were 10-100 times more likely to be high risk than those in the highest quartile. We observed substantial risk disparities for onroad, area, and nonroad sources by socioeconomic measure and on-road and area sources by race. There was considerably less evidence of risk disparities from major source emissions. We found a statistically significant interaction between race and income, suggesting a stronger relationship between race and risk at lower incomes. This research demonstrates the utility of NATA for assessing regional environmental justice, identifies an environmental justice concern in Maryland, and suggests that on-road sources may be appropriate targets for policies intended to reduce the disproportionate environmental health burden among economically disadvantaged and minority populations.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)693-699
Number of pages7
JournalEnvironmental Health Perspectives
Volume113
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 2005

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racial disparity
Poisons
Air
air
census
Censuses
Neoplasms
environmental justice
road
Social Justice
income
socioeconomics
cancer risk
United States Environmental Protection Agency
Environmental Health
confidence interval
Environmental Protection Agency
Vulnerable Populations

Keywords

  • Air toxics
  • Cancer
  • Disparity
  • Environmental justice
  • Exposure
  • Income
  • NATA
  • Race

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Science(all)
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

Cite this

Socioeconomic and racial disparities in cancer risk from air toxics in Maryland. / Apelberg, Benjamin J.; Buckley, Timothy J.; White, Ronald H.

In: Environmental Health Perspectives, Vol. 113, No. 6, 06.2005, p. 693-699.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Apelberg, Benjamin J. ; Buckley, Timothy J. ; White, Ronald H. / Socioeconomic and racial disparities in cancer risk from air toxics in Maryland. In: Environmental Health Perspectives. 2005 ; Vol. 113, No. 6. pp. 693-699.
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