Socio-demographic and drug use factors associated with HIV-1 recombinants and dual infections in Northern Thai drug users: Associations of risk with genetic complexity

G. H. Kijak, Christopher Beyrer, S. Tovanabutra, T. Sripaipan, V. Suriyanon, N. Moqueet, E. Sanders-Buell, P. Saokhieo, U. Timpan, J. Jittiwutikarn, M. L. Robb, D. L. Birx, David D Celentano, F. E. McCutchan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Background: Dual infection with diverse HIV strains can foster the emergence of recombinants. The resulting increase in viral genetic diversity is a major challenge for vaccine development HIV treatment. In this study we aim to investigate the socio demographic factors associated with an increasing level of genetic diversity among HIV strains in a population of drug-users in Northern Thailand. Methods: From 1999 through 2000, 2231 volunteers were enrolled in the Opiate-Users Research in Chiang Mai, Thailand. HIV subtype analysis was conducted among those HIV-1 seropositive (n= 347) using a multi-region hybridization assay. Social and demographic variables were assessed using a structured questionnaire. Results: Overall, 336/347 (96.8%) of the samples could be typed. 81.8% were CRF01_AE, 3.9% were subtype B, 9.2% were recombinants (mostly between CRF01_AE and B) and 5.1% were dual infections. Dual infections were more frequent among those with a lower education level (AOR: 5.2; 95% CI 1.4-20.3), those who have initiated injecting in the last 3 years (AOR: 3.9; 95% CI 1.1-14.6), and those reporting frequent needle sharing in the last 3 months (AOR: 7.0; 95% CI 1.5-34.1). Both recombinant strains and dual infection were more frequent among those reporting frequent needle sharing in the last 3 months (AOR: 5.3; 95% CI 1.6-17.1). Conclusion: To limit the expanding complexity of HIV-1 strains, early intervention should be aimed at reduction in needle sharing, especially among new intravenous drug users.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)24-30
Number of pages7
JournalDrug and Alcohol Dependence
Volume116
Issue number1-3
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 1 2011

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Needle Sharing
Drug Users
HIV-1
Demography
Needles
HIV
Thailand
Infection
Pharmaceutical Preparations
Opiate Alkaloids
AIDS Vaccines
Volunteers
Assays
Vaccines
Education
Research
Population
Therapeutics

Keywords

  • Dual infection
  • HIV/AIDS
  • Injecting risk
  • Injection drug use
  • Molecular epidemiology
  • Multi-region hybridization assay
  • Recombination
  • Thailand

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Toxicology
  • Pharmacology
  • Pharmacology (medical)

Cite this

Socio-demographic and drug use factors associated with HIV-1 recombinants and dual infections in Northern Thai drug users : Associations of risk with genetic complexity. / Kijak, G. H.; Beyrer, Christopher; Tovanabutra, S.; Sripaipan, T.; Suriyanon, V.; Moqueet, N.; Sanders-Buell, E.; Saokhieo, P.; Timpan, U.; Jittiwutikarn, J.; Robb, M. L.; Birx, D. L.; Celentano, David D; McCutchan, F. E.

In: Drug and Alcohol Dependence, Vol. 116, No. 1-3, 01.07.2011, p. 24-30.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Kijak, GH, Beyrer, C, Tovanabutra, S, Sripaipan, T, Suriyanon, V, Moqueet, N, Sanders-Buell, E, Saokhieo, P, Timpan, U, Jittiwutikarn, J, Robb, ML, Birx, DL, Celentano, DD & McCutchan, FE 2011, 'Socio-demographic and drug use factors associated with HIV-1 recombinants and dual infections in Northern Thai drug users: Associations of risk with genetic complexity', Drug and Alcohol Dependence, vol. 116, no. 1-3, pp. 24-30. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2010.11.013
Kijak, G. H. ; Beyrer, Christopher ; Tovanabutra, S. ; Sripaipan, T. ; Suriyanon, V. ; Moqueet, N. ; Sanders-Buell, E. ; Saokhieo, P. ; Timpan, U. ; Jittiwutikarn, J. ; Robb, M. L. ; Birx, D. L. ; Celentano, David D ; McCutchan, F. E. / Socio-demographic and drug use factors associated with HIV-1 recombinants and dual infections in Northern Thai drug users : Associations of risk with genetic complexity. In: Drug and Alcohol Dependence. 2011 ; Vol. 116, No. 1-3. pp. 24-30.
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abstract = "Background: Dual infection with diverse HIV strains can foster the emergence of recombinants. The resulting increase in viral genetic diversity is a major challenge for vaccine development HIV treatment. In this study we aim to investigate the socio demographic factors associated with an increasing level of genetic diversity among HIV strains in a population of drug-users in Northern Thailand. Methods: From 1999 through 2000, 2231 volunteers were enrolled in the Opiate-Users Research in Chiang Mai, Thailand. HIV subtype analysis was conducted among those HIV-1 seropositive (n= 347) using a multi-region hybridization assay. Social and demographic variables were assessed using a structured questionnaire. Results: Overall, 336/347 (96.8{\%}) of the samples could be typed. 81.8{\%} were CRF01_AE, 3.9{\%} were subtype B, 9.2{\%} were recombinants (mostly between CRF01_AE and B) and 5.1{\%} were dual infections. Dual infections were more frequent among those with a lower education level (AOR: 5.2; 95{\%} CI 1.4-20.3), those who have initiated injecting in the last 3 years (AOR: 3.9; 95{\%} CI 1.1-14.6), and those reporting frequent needle sharing in the last 3 months (AOR: 7.0; 95{\%} CI 1.5-34.1). Both recombinant strains and dual infection were more frequent among those reporting frequent needle sharing in the last 3 months (AOR: 5.3; 95{\%} CI 1.6-17.1). Conclusion: To limit the expanding complexity of HIV-1 strains, early intervention should be aimed at reduction in needle sharing, especially among new intravenous drug users.",
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AU - Tovanabutra, S.

AU - Sripaipan, T.

AU - Suriyanon, V.

AU - Moqueet, N.

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AU - Saokhieo, P.

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