Socio-demographic and drug use factors associated with HIV-1 recombinants and dual infections in Northern Thai drug users: Associations of risk with genetic complexity

G. H. Kijak, C. Beyrer, S. Tovanabutra, T. Sripaipan, V. Suriyanon, N. Moqueet, E. Sanders-Buell, P. Saokhieo, U. Timpan, J. Jittiwutikarn, M. L. Robb, D. L. Birx, D. D. Celentano, F. E. McCutchan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background: Dual infection with diverse HIV strains can foster the emergence of recombinants. The resulting increase in viral genetic diversity is a major challenge for vaccine development HIV treatment. In this study we aim to investigate the socio demographic factors associated with an increasing level of genetic diversity among HIV strains in a population of drug-users in Northern Thailand. Methods: From 1999 through 2000, 2231 volunteers were enrolled in the Opiate-Users Research in Chiang Mai, Thailand. HIV subtype analysis was conducted among those HIV-1 seropositive (n= 347) using a multi-region hybridization assay. Social and demographic variables were assessed using a structured questionnaire. Results: Overall, 336/347 (96.8%) of the samples could be typed. 81.8% were CRF01_AE, 3.9% were subtype B, 9.2% were recombinants (mostly between CRF01_AE and B) and 5.1% were dual infections. Dual infections were more frequent among those with a lower education level (AOR: 5.2; 95% CI 1.4-20.3), those who have initiated injecting in the last 3 years (AOR: 3.9; 95% CI 1.1-14.6), and those reporting frequent needle sharing in the last 3 months (AOR: 7.0; 95% CI 1.5-34.1). Both recombinant strains and dual infection were more frequent among those reporting frequent needle sharing in the last 3 months (AOR: 5.3; 95% CI 1.6-17.1). Conclusion: To limit the expanding complexity of HIV-1 strains, early intervention should be aimed at reduction in needle sharing, especially among new intravenous drug users.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)24-30
Number of pages7
JournalDrug and alcohol dependence
Volume116
Issue number1-3
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 1 2011

Keywords

  • Dual infection
  • HIV/AIDS
  • Injecting risk
  • Injection drug use
  • Molecular epidemiology
  • Multi-region hybridization assay
  • Recombination
  • Thailand

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Toxicology
  • Pharmacology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Pharmacology (medical)

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