Smoking motive factors: A review and replication

Paul T. Costa, Robert R. McCrae, Raymond Bosse

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


A review of recent research shows that some consensus on the number, nature, and function of smoking motives or styles is emerging. Large-scale studies on the stability of motives and the utility of the smoking motive model, however, have not yet been reported. To test the factorial replicability and longitudinal stability of smoking motives, the Horn-Waingrow Smoker Survey was administered to subjects in 1973 and again in 1976, together with 20 additional items developed by Coan. Subjects were 1,340 current and former adult male smokers. Factor analyses showed that the original factor structure could be satisfactorily replicated at both times, and that the addition of Coan's new items contributed only one new factor. The 3-year stability coefficients for both continuing and former smokers ranged from. 45 to. 67, consistent with the idea that smoking motives are a relatively stable reflection of personality needs and traits.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)537-549
Number of pages13
JournalSubstance Use and Misuse
Issue number4
StatePublished - Jan 1 1980
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Health(social science)
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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