Smoking and Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Comparison of China, India, and the USA

Peiqi Wang, Jun Hu, Shadi Ghadermarzi, Ali Raza, Douglas O’Connell, Amy Xiao, Faraz Ayyaz, Min Zhi, Yuanqi Zhang, Nimisha K. Parekh, Mark Lazarev, Alyssa Parian, Steven R. Brant, Marshall S Bedine, Brindusa Truta, Pinjin Hu, Rupa Banerjee, Susan Hutfless

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Background: Cigarette smoking is thought to increase the risk of Crohn’s disease (CD) and exacerbate the disease course, with opposite roles in ulcerative colitis (UC). However, these findings are from Western populations, and the association between smoking and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has not been well studied in Asia.Aims: We aimed to compare the prevalence of smoking at diagnosis between IBD cases and controls recruited in China, India, and the USA, and to investigate the impact of smoking on disease outcomes. Methods: We recruited IBD cases and controls between 2014 and 2018. All participants completed a questionnaire about demographic characteristics, environmental risk factors and IBD history. Results: We recruited 337 participants from China, 194 from India, and 645 from the USA. In China, CD cases were less likely than controls to be current smokers (adjusted odds ratio [95% CI] 0.4 [0.2–0.9]). There was no association between current or former smoking and CD in the USA. In China and the USA, UC cases were more likely to be former smokers than controls (China 14.6 [3.3–64.8]; USA 1.8 [1.0–3.3]). In India, both CD and UC had similar current smoking status to controls at diagnosis. Current smoking at diagnosis was significantly associated with greater use of immunosuppressants (4.4 [1.1–18.1]) in CD cases in China. Conclusions: We found heterogeneity in the associations of smoking and IBD risk and outcomes between China, India, and the USA. Further study with more adequate sample size and more uniform definition of smoking status is warranted.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1-11
Number of pages11
JournalDigestive Diseases and Sciences
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - Jun 4 2018

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Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
India
China
Smoking
Crohn Disease
Ulcerative Colitis
Immunosuppressive Agents
Sample Size
Odds Ratio
Demography
Population

Keywords

  • Asia
  • Crohn’s disease
  • Environment
  • Smoking
  • Ulcerative colitis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology
  • Gastroenterology

Cite this

Smoking and Inflammatory Bowel Disease : A Comparison of China, India, and the USA. / Wang, Peiqi; Hu, Jun; Ghadermarzi, Shadi; Raza, Ali; O’Connell, Douglas; Xiao, Amy; Ayyaz, Faraz; Zhi, Min; Zhang, Yuanqi; Parekh, Nimisha K.; Lazarev, Mark; Parian, Alyssa; Brant, Steven R.; Bedine, Marshall S; Truta, Brindusa; Hu, Pinjin; Banerjee, Rupa; Hutfless, Susan.

In: Digestive Diseases and Sciences, 04.06.2018, p. 1-11.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Wang, P, Hu, J, Ghadermarzi, S, Raza, A, O’Connell, D, Xiao, A, Ayyaz, F, Zhi, M, Zhang, Y, Parekh, NK, Lazarev, M, Parian, A, Brant, SR, Bedine, MS, Truta, B, Hu, P, Banerjee, R & Hutfless, S 2018, 'Smoking and Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Comparison of China, India, and the USA', Digestive Diseases and Sciences, pp. 1-11. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10620-018-5142-0
Wang, Peiqi ; Hu, Jun ; Ghadermarzi, Shadi ; Raza, Ali ; O’Connell, Douglas ; Xiao, Amy ; Ayyaz, Faraz ; Zhi, Min ; Zhang, Yuanqi ; Parekh, Nimisha K. ; Lazarev, Mark ; Parian, Alyssa ; Brant, Steven R. ; Bedine, Marshall S ; Truta, Brindusa ; Hu, Pinjin ; Banerjee, Rupa ; Hutfless, Susan. / Smoking and Inflammatory Bowel Disease : A Comparison of China, India, and the USA. In: Digestive Diseases and Sciences. 2018 ; pp. 1-11.
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abstract = "Background: Cigarette smoking is thought to increase the risk of Crohn’s disease (CD) and exacerbate the disease course, with opposite roles in ulcerative colitis (UC). However, these findings are from Western populations, and the association between smoking and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has not been well studied in Asia.Aims: We aimed to compare the prevalence of smoking at diagnosis between IBD cases and controls recruited in China, India, and the USA, and to investigate the impact of smoking on disease outcomes. Methods: We recruited IBD cases and controls between 2014 and 2018. All participants completed a questionnaire about demographic characteristics, environmental risk factors and IBD history. Results: We recruited 337 participants from China, 194 from India, and 645 from the USA. In China, CD cases were less likely than controls to be current smokers (adjusted odds ratio [95{\%} CI] 0.4 [0.2–0.9]). There was no association between current or former smoking and CD in the USA. In China and the USA, UC cases were more likely to be former smokers than controls (China 14.6 [3.3–64.8]; USA 1.8 [1.0–3.3]). In India, both CD and UC had similar current smoking status to controls at diagnosis. Current smoking at diagnosis was significantly associated with greater use of immunosuppressants (4.4 [1.1–18.1]) in CD cases in China. Conclusions: We found heterogeneity in the associations of smoking and IBD risk and outcomes between China, India, and the USA. Further study with more adequate sample size and more uniform definition of smoking status is warranted.",
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T1 - Smoking and Inflammatory Bowel Disease

T2 - A Comparison of China, India, and the USA

AU - Wang, Peiqi

AU - Hu, Jun

AU - Ghadermarzi, Shadi

AU - Raza, Ali

AU - O’Connell, Douglas

AU - Xiao, Amy

AU - Ayyaz, Faraz

AU - Zhi, Min

AU - Zhang, Yuanqi

AU - Parekh, Nimisha K.

AU - Lazarev, Mark

AU - Parian, Alyssa

AU - Brant, Steven R.

AU - Bedine, Marshall S

AU - Truta, Brindusa

AU - Hu, Pinjin

AU - Banerjee, Rupa

AU - Hutfless, Susan

PY - 2018/6/4

Y1 - 2018/6/4

N2 - Background: Cigarette smoking is thought to increase the risk of Crohn’s disease (CD) and exacerbate the disease course, with opposite roles in ulcerative colitis (UC). However, these findings are from Western populations, and the association between smoking and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has not been well studied in Asia.Aims: We aimed to compare the prevalence of smoking at diagnosis between IBD cases and controls recruited in China, India, and the USA, and to investigate the impact of smoking on disease outcomes. Methods: We recruited IBD cases and controls between 2014 and 2018. All participants completed a questionnaire about demographic characteristics, environmental risk factors and IBD history. Results: We recruited 337 participants from China, 194 from India, and 645 from the USA. In China, CD cases were less likely than controls to be current smokers (adjusted odds ratio [95% CI] 0.4 [0.2–0.9]). There was no association between current or former smoking and CD in the USA. In China and the USA, UC cases were more likely to be former smokers than controls (China 14.6 [3.3–64.8]; USA 1.8 [1.0–3.3]). In India, both CD and UC had similar current smoking status to controls at diagnosis. Current smoking at diagnosis was significantly associated with greater use of immunosuppressants (4.4 [1.1–18.1]) in CD cases in China. Conclusions: We found heterogeneity in the associations of smoking and IBD risk and outcomes between China, India, and the USA. Further study with more adequate sample size and more uniform definition of smoking status is warranted.

AB - Background: Cigarette smoking is thought to increase the risk of Crohn’s disease (CD) and exacerbate the disease course, with opposite roles in ulcerative colitis (UC). However, these findings are from Western populations, and the association between smoking and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has not been well studied in Asia.Aims: We aimed to compare the prevalence of smoking at diagnosis between IBD cases and controls recruited in China, India, and the USA, and to investigate the impact of smoking on disease outcomes. Methods: We recruited IBD cases and controls between 2014 and 2018. All participants completed a questionnaire about demographic characteristics, environmental risk factors and IBD history. Results: We recruited 337 participants from China, 194 from India, and 645 from the USA. In China, CD cases were less likely than controls to be current smokers (adjusted odds ratio [95% CI] 0.4 [0.2–0.9]). There was no association between current or former smoking and CD in the USA. In China and the USA, UC cases were more likely to be former smokers than controls (China 14.6 [3.3–64.8]; USA 1.8 [1.0–3.3]). In India, both CD and UC had similar current smoking status to controls at diagnosis. Current smoking at diagnosis was significantly associated with greater use of immunosuppressants (4.4 [1.1–18.1]) in CD cases in China. Conclusions: We found heterogeneity in the associations of smoking and IBD risk and outcomes between China, India, and the USA. Further study with more adequate sample size and more uniform definition of smoking status is warranted.

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KW - Crohn’s disease

KW - Environment

KW - Smoking

KW - Ulcerative colitis

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