Smoking and illicit drug use during pregnancy: Impact on neonatal outcome

Donna R. Miles, Susan Lanni, Lauren Jansson, Dace Svikis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of maternal substance use on neonatal outcomes in 212 pregnant cocaine/opiate dependent women who delivered while in active drug treatment. STUDY DESIGN: Using urine toxicology data at delivery, subjects were classified drug positive (+TOX) (n = 53) or negative (-TOX) (n = 159). Maternal smoking was related to NICU LOS, even among polydrug-dependent patients... RESULTS: Toxicology status was not associated with maternal or neonatal demographic or drug use variables. +TOX patients were enrolled in the treatment program for a shorter period of time than -TOX (683 vs. 91.3 days, p = 0.005). Infant birth weight ratio (IBR) ivas lower in +TOX women (0.84 vs. 0.90, p = 0.003). +TOX women were hvice as likely to have small-for-gestational- age (IBR < 0.85) neonates than were -TOX. Length of stay (LOS) in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) was not associated with maternal toxicology but was associated with quantity of tobacco per day (p = 0.0001). NICU neonates with heavily smoking mothers (11+ cigarettes/day) averaged LOS = 9.5 days as compared to light (1-10 cigarettes per day) smokers (LOS = 7.9 days) and nonsmokers (LOS = 5.5 days). CONCLUSION: Maternal drug abstinence is associated ivith higher 1ER. Maternal smoking is related to NICU LOS, even among poly drug-dependent women. These data are clinically and economically important and support the need for smoking cessation interventions in high-risk populations, such as drug-dependent pregnant women.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)567-572
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Reproductive Medicine for the Obstetrician and Gynecologist
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 2006


  • Illicit drugs
  • Pregnancy complications
  • Pregnancy outcome
  • Smoking

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Reproductive Medicine
  • Obstetrics and Gynecology

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