Sleep neurophysiological dynamics through the lens of multitaper spectral analysis

Michael J. Prerau, Ritchie E. Brown, Matt T. Bianchi, Jeffrey M. Ellenbogen, Patrick L. Purdon

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Abstract

During sleep, cortical and subcortical structures within the brain engage in highly structured oscillatory dynamics that can be observed in the electroencephalogram (EEG). The ability to accurately describe changes in sleep state from these oscillations has thus been a major goal of sleep medicine. While numerous studies over the past 50 years have shown sleep to be a continuous, multifocal, dynamic process, long-standing clinical practice categorizes sleep EEG into discrete stages through visual inspection of 30-s epochs. By representing sleep as a coarsely discretized progression of stages, vital neurophysiological information on the dynamic interplay between sleep and arousal is lost. However, by using principled timefrequency spectral analysis methods, the rich dynamics of the sleep EEG are immediately visible— elegantly depicted and quantified at time scales ranging from a full night down to individual microevents. In this paper, we review the neurophysiology of sleep through this lens of dynamic spectral analysis. We begin by reviewing spectral estimation techniques traditionally used in sleep EEG analysis and introduce multitaper spectral analysis, a method that makes EEG spectral estimates clearer and more accurate than traditional approaches. Through the lens of the multitaper spectrogram, we review the oscillations and mechanisms underlying the traditional sleep stages. In doing so, we will demonstrate how multitaper spectral analysis makes the oscillatory structure of traditional sleep states instantaneously visible, closely paralleling the traditional hypnogram, but with a richness of information that suggests novel insights into the neural mechanisms of sleep, as well as novel clinical and research applications.

LanguageEnglish (US)
Pages60-92
Number of pages33
JournalPhysiology
Volume32
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2017

Fingerprint

Lenses
Sleep
Electroencephalography
Neurophysiology
Aptitude
Sleep Stages
Arousal
Medicine

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology

Cite this

Prerau, M. J., Brown, R. E., Bianchi, M. T., Ellenbogen, J. M., & Purdon, P. L. (2017). Sleep neurophysiological dynamics through the lens of multitaper spectral analysis. Physiology, 32(1), 60-92. DOI: 10.1152/physiol.00062.2015

Sleep neurophysiological dynamics through the lens of multitaper spectral analysis. / Prerau, Michael J.; Brown, Ritchie E.; Bianchi, Matt T.; Ellenbogen, Jeffrey M.; Purdon, Patrick L.

In: Physiology, Vol. 32, No. 1, 01.01.2017, p. 60-92.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Prerau, MJ, Brown, RE, Bianchi, MT, Ellenbogen, JM & Purdon, PL 2017, 'Sleep neurophysiological dynamics through the lens of multitaper spectral analysis' Physiology, vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 60-92. DOI: 10.1152/physiol.00062.2015
Prerau MJ, Brown RE, Bianchi MT, Ellenbogen JM, Purdon PL. Sleep neurophysiological dynamics through the lens of multitaper spectral analysis. Physiology. 2017 Jan 1;32(1):60-92. Available from, DOI: 10.1152/physiol.00062.2015
Prerau, Michael J. ; Brown, Ritchie E. ; Bianchi, Matt T. ; Ellenbogen, Jeffrey M. ; Purdon, Patrick L./ Sleep neurophysiological dynamics through the lens of multitaper spectral analysis. In: Physiology. 2017 ; Vol. 32, No. 1. pp. 60-92
@article{4790becb885b472ebcb9b0287f918541,
title = "Sleep neurophysiological dynamics through the lens of multitaper spectral analysis",
abstract = "During sleep, cortical and subcortical structures within the brain engage in highly structured oscillatory dynamics that can be observed in the electroencephalogram (EEG). The ability to accurately describe changes in sleep state from these oscillations has thus been a major goal of sleep medicine. While numerous studies over the past 50 years have shown sleep to be a continuous, multifocal, dynamic process, long-standing clinical practice categorizes sleep EEG into discrete stages through visual inspection of 30-s epochs. By representing sleep as a coarsely discretized progression of stages, vital neurophysiological information on the dynamic interplay between sleep and arousal is lost. However, by using principled timefrequency spectral analysis methods, the rich dynamics of the sleep EEG are immediately visible— elegantly depicted and quantified at time scales ranging from a full night down to individual microevents. In this paper, we review the neurophysiology of sleep through this lens of dynamic spectral analysis. We begin by reviewing spectral estimation techniques traditionally used in sleep EEG analysis and introduce multitaper spectral analysis, a method that makes EEG spectral estimates clearer and more accurate than traditional approaches. Through the lens of the multitaper spectrogram, we review the oscillations and mechanisms underlying the traditional sleep stages. In doing so, we will demonstrate how multitaper spectral analysis makes the oscillatory structure of traditional sleep states instantaneously visible, closely paralleling the traditional hypnogram, but with a richness of information that suggests novel insights into the neural mechanisms of sleep, as well as novel clinical and research applications.",
author = "Prerau, {Michael J.} and Brown, {Ritchie E.} and Bianchi, {Matt T.} and Ellenbogen, {Jeffrey M.} and Purdon, {Patrick L.}",
year = "2017",
month = "1",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1152/physiol.00062.2015",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "32",
pages = "60--92",
journal = "Physiology",
issn = "1548-9213",
publisher = "American Physiological Society",
number = "1",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Sleep neurophysiological dynamics through the lens of multitaper spectral analysis

AU - Prerau,Michael J.

AU - Brown,Ritchie E.

AU - Bianchi,Matt T.

AU - Ellenbogen,Jeffrey M.

AU - Purdon,Patrick L.

PY - 2017/1/1

Y1 - 2017/1/1

N2 - During sleep, cortical and subcortical structures within the brain engage in highly structured oscillatory dynamics that can be observed in the electroencephalogram (EEG). The ability to accurately describe changes in sleep state from these oscillations has thus been a major goal of sleep medicine. While numerous studies over the past 50 years have shown sleep to be a continuous, multifocal, dynamic process, long-standing clinical practice categorizes sleep EEG into discrete stages through visual inspection of 30-s epochs. By representing sleep as a coarsely discretized progression of stages, vital neurophysiological information on the dynamic interplay between sleep and arousal is lost. However, by using principled timefrequency spectral analysis methods, the rich dynamics of the sleep EEG are immediately visible— elegantly depicted and quantified at time scales ranging from a full night down to individual microevents. In this paper, we review the neurophysiology of sleep through this lens of dynamic spectral analysis. We begin by reviewing spectral estimation techniques traditionally used in sleep EEG analysis and introduce multitaper spectral analysis, a method that makes EEG spectral estimates clearer and more accurate than traditional approaches. Through the lens of the multitaper spectrogram, we review the oscillations and mechanisms underlying the traditional sleep stages. In doing so, we will demonstrate how multitaper spectral analysis makes the oscillatory structure of traditional sleep states instantaneously visible, closely paralleling the traditional hypnogram, but with a richness of information that suggests novel insights into the neural mechanisms of sleep, as well as novel clinical and research applications.

AB - During sleep, cortical and subcortical structures within the brain engage in highly structured oscillatory dynamics that can be observed in the electroencephalogram (EEG). The ability to accurately describe changes in sleep state from these oscillations has thus been a major goal of sleep medicine. While numerous studies over the past 50 years have shown sleep to be a continuous, multifocal, dynamic process, long-standing clinical practice categorizes sleep EEG into discrete stages through visual inspection of 30-s epochs. By representing sleep as a coarsely discretized progression of stages, vital neurophysiological information on the dynamic interplay between sleep and arousal is lost. However, by using principled timefrequency spectral analysis methods, the rich dynamics of the sleep EEG are immediately visible— elegantly depicted and quantified at time scales ranging from a full night down to individual microevents. In this paper, we review the neurophysiology of sleep through this lens of dynamic spectral analysis. We begin by reviewing spectral estimation techniques traditionally used in sleep EEG analysis and introduce multitaper spectral analysis, a method that makes EEG spectral estimates clearer and more accurate than traditional approaches. Through the lens of the multitaper spectrogram, we review the oscillations and mechanisms underlying the traditional sleep stages. In doing so, we will demonstrate how multitaper spectral analysis makes the oscillatory structure of traditional sleep states instantaneously visible, closely paralleling the traditional hypnogram, but with a richness of information that suggests novel insights into the neural mechanisms of sleep, as well as novel clinical and research applications.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85006056993&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85006056993&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1152/physiol.00062.2015

DO - 10.1152/physiol.00062.2015

M3 - Review article

VL - 32

SP - 60

EP - 92

JO - Physiology

T2 - Physiology

JF - Physiology

SN - 1548-9213

IS - 1

ER -