Skin elicitation threshold of ethylbutyl thiourea and mercaptobenzothiazole with relative leaching from sensitizing products

E. A. Emmett, T. H. Risby, J. Taylor, C. L. Chen, L. Jiang, S. E. Feinman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

We studied 3 contact sensitizers present in rubber products, ethylbutyl thiourea (EBT), 2‐mercapto‐benzothiazole (MBT) and 2,2‐dithio‐bis‐benzothiazole (MBTS), to relate the amount orsensitizer eliciting allergic contact dermatitis to the quantity leaching from a product into various biological fluids: normal saline, human plasma and 3 synthetic sweat solutions of pH 5.5 to 7.5. To determine the amount of sensitizer remaining after leaching, Soxhlet extraction with acetonitrile was subsequently performed. High‐performance liquid chromatography was used for chemical analysis. 12 MBT‐sensitive patients were patch tested with serial dilutions of MBT and MBTS in petrolatum. A Latin Square design was used in statistical analysis of variance of the patch test results. Large amounts of thioureas leached from 2 rubber articles eliciting thiourea dermatitis, the literature suggesting that these would have been well above the elicitation threshold. Leaching of MBTS was relatively greater than MBT into most media, whereas MBT was a more potent elicitor than MBTS at equivalent concentrations. The lowest eliciting concentration of MBT in 1 subject was 0.01%. Such information should prove helpful to manufacturers in designed products that do not release allergens sufficiently to cause reactions in consumers.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)85-90
Number of pages6
JournalContact Dermatitis
Volume30
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 1994

Keywords

  • 2,2‐dithio‐bis‐benzothiazole
  • 2‐mercaptobenzothiazole
  • allergic contact dermatitis
  • consumer protection
  • ethylbutyl thiourea
  • leaching studies
  • patch test elicitation thresholds
  • prevention
  • rubber

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Dermatology

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