SIV Latency in Macrophages in the CNS

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

Abstract

Lentiviruses infect myeloid cells, leading to acute infection followed by persistent/latent infections not cleared by the host immune system. HIV and SIV are lentiviruses that infect CD4+ lymphocytes in addition to myeloid cells in blood and tissues. HIV infection of myeloid cells in brain, lung, and heart causes tissue-specific diseases that are mostly observed during severe immunosuppression, when the number of circulating CD4+ T cells declines to exceeding low levels. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) controls viral replication but does not successfully eliminate latent virus, which leads to viral rebound once ART is interrupted. HIV latency in CD4+ lymphocytes is the main focus of research and concern when HIV eradication efforts are considered. However, myeloid cells in tissues are long-lived and have not been routinely examined as a potential reservoir. Based on a quantitative viral outgrowth assay (QVOA) designed to evaluate latently infected CD4+ lymphocytes, a similar protocol was developed for the assessment of latently infected myeloid cells in blood and tissues. Using an SIV ART model, it was demonstrated that myeloid cells in blood and brain harbor latent SIV that can be reactivated and produce infectious virus in vitro, demonstrating that myeloid cells have the potential to be an additional latent reservoir of HIV that should be considered during HIV eradication strategies.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationCurrent Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
PublisherSpringer Verlag
Pages111-130
Number of pages20
DOIs
StatePublished - 2018

Publication series

NameCurrent Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
Volume417
ISSN (Print)0070-217X
ISSN (Electronic)2196-9965

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Microbiology
  • Immunology
  • Microbiology (medical)

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