For whole body EPR imaging of small animals, typically low frequencies of 250-750 MHz have been used due to the microwave losses at higher frequencies and the challenges in designing suitable resonators to accommodate these large lossy samples. However, low microwave frequency limits the obtainable sensitivity. L-band frequencies can provide higher sensitivity, and have been commonly used for localized in vivo EPR spectroscopy. Therefore, it would be highly desirable to develop an L-band microwave resonator suitable for in vivo whole body EPR imaging of small animals such as living mice. A 1.2 GHz 16-gap resonator with inner diameter of 42 mm and 48 mm length was designed and constructed for whole body EPR imaging of small animals. The resonator has good field homogeneity and stability to animal-induced motional noise. Resonator stability was achieved with electrical and mechanical design utilizing a fixed position double coupling loop of novel geometry, thus minimizing the number of moving parts. Using this resonator, high quality EPR images of lossy phantoms and living mice were obtained. This design provides good sensitivity, ease of sample access, excellent stability and uniform B1 field homogeneity for in vivo whole body EPR imaging of mice at 1.2 GHz.
- Electron paramagnetic resonance
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Biology
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
- Condensed Matter Physics