High-dose, posttransplantation cyclophosphamide (PTCy) reduces severe graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after allogeneic blood or marrow transplantation (alloBMT), but the impact of PTCy on long-term, disease-specific outcomes is unclear. We conducted a retrospective study of 209 consecutive adult patients transplanted for acute myeloid leukemia (AML, n = 138), myelodysplastic syndrome (n = 28), or acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL, n = 43) using PTCy as sole GVHD prophylaxis after myeloablative conditioning and HLA-matched-related or -unrelated T-cell-replete allografting. At alloBMT, 30% of patients were not in morphologic complete remission. The cumulative incidences of grades II to IV and III to IV acute GVHD at 100 days and chronic GVHD at 2 years were 45%, 11%, and 13%, respectively. Forty-three percent of patients did not require immunosuppression for any reason beyond PTCy. At 3 years, relapse cumulative incidence was 36%, disease-free survival was 46%, survival free of disease and chronic GVHD was 39%, and overall survival was 58%. Lack of remission at alloBMT, adverse cytogenetics, and low allograft nucleated cell dose were associated with inferior survival for AML patients. Minimal residual disease but not t(9;22) was associated with inferior outcomes for ALL patients. The ability to limit posttransplantation immunosuppression makes PTCy a promising transplantation platform for the integration of postgrafting strategies to prevent relapse.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cell Biology