Simultaneous T 2 and lipid quantitation using IDEAL-CPMG

Robert L. Janiczek, Giulio Gambarota, Christopher D.J. Sinclair, Tarek A. Yousry, John S. Thornton, Xavier Golay, Rexford D. Newbould

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Muscle damage, edema, and fat infiltration are hallmarks of a range of neuromuscular diseases. The T 2 of water, T 2,w, in muscle lengthens with both myocellular damage and inflammation and is typically measured using multiple spin-echo or Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill acquisitions. However, microscopic fat infiltration in neuromuscular diseases prevents accurate T 2,w quantitation as the longer T 2 of fat, T 2,f, masks underlying changes in the water component. Fat saturation can be inconsistent across the imaging volume and removes valuable physiological fat information. A new method is presented that combines iterative decomposition of water and fat with echo asymmetry and least squares estimation with a Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill-sequence. The sequence results in water and fat separated images at each echo time for use in T 2,w and T 2,f quantification. With knowledge of the T 2,w and T 2,f, a T 2-corrected fat fraction map can also be calculated. Monte-Carlo simulations and measurements in phantoms, volunteers, and a patient with inclusion body myositis are demonstrated. In healthy volunteers, uniform T 2,w and T 2-corrected fat fraction maps are present within all muscle groups. However, muscle-specific patterns of fat infiltration and edema are evident in inclusion body myositis, which demonstrates the power of separating and quantifying the fat and water components.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1293-1302
Number of pages10
JournalMagnetic resonance in medicine
Issue number5
StatePublished - Nov 1 2011


  • T relaxometry
  • edema
  • muscular dystrophy
  • water-fat separation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

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    Janiczek, R. L., Gambarota, G., Sinclair, C. D. J., Yousry, T. A., Thornton, J. S., Golay, X., & Newbould, R. D. (2011). Simultaneous T 2 and lipid quantitation using IDEAL-CPMG. Magnetic resonance in medicine, 66(5), 1293-1302.