Simultaneous optical and electrical in vivo analysis of the enteric nervous system

Nikolai Rakhilin, Bradley Barth, Jiahn Choi, Nini L. Muñoz, Subhash Kulkarni, Jason S. Jones, David M. Small, Yu Ting Cheng, Yingqiu Cao, Colleen Lavinka, Edwin Kan, Xinzhong Dong, Michael Spencer, Pankaj Pasricha, Nozomi Nishimura, Xiling Shen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The enteric nervous system (ENS) is a major division of the nervous system and vital to the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and its communication with the rest of the body. Unlike the brain and spinal cord, relatively little is known about the ENS in part because of the inability to directly monitor its activity in live animals. Here, we integrate a transparent graphene sensor with a customized abdominal window for simultaneous optical and electrical recording of the ENS in vivo. The implanted device captures ENS responses to neurotransmitters, drugs and optogenetic manipulation in real time.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number11800
JournalNature communications
StatePublished - Jun 7 2016
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Physics and Astronomy(all)


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