Simultaneous assay of cocaine, heroin and metabolites in hair, plasma, saliva and urine by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

Wen Ling Wang, William D. Darwin, Edward J. Cone

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

As part of an ongoing research program on the development of drug detection methodology, we developed an assay for the simultaneous measurement of cocaine, heroin and metabolites in plasma, saliva, urine and hair by solid-phase extraction (SPE) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The analytes that could be measured by this assay were the following: anhydroecgonine methyl ester; ecgonine methyl ester; ecgonine ethyl ester; cocaine; cocaethylene; benzoylecgonine; cocaethylene; norcocaethylene; benzoylnorecgonine; codeine; morphine; norcodeine; 6-acetylmorphine; normorphine; and heroin. Liquid specimens were diluted, filtered and then extracted by SPE. Additional handling steps were necessary for the analysis of hair samples. An initial wash procedure was utilized to remove surface contaminants. Washed hair samples were extracted with methanol overnight at 40°C. Both wash and extract fractions were collected, evaporated and purified by SPE. All extracts were evaporated, derivatized with N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA) with 1% trimethylchlorosilane (TMCS) and analyzed by GC-MS. The limit of detection (LOD) for cocaine, heroin and metabolites in biological specimens was approximately 1 ng/ml with the exception of norcodeine, normorphine and benzoylnorecgonine (LOD = 5 ng/ml). The LOD for cocaine, heroin and metabolites in hair was approximately 0.1 ng/mg of hair with the exception of norcodeine (LOD = 0.3 ng/mg) and normorphine and benzoylnorecgonine (LOD = 0.5 ng/mg). Coefficients of variation ranged from 3 to 26.5% in the hair assay. This assay has been successfully utilized in research on the disposition of cocaine, heroin and metabolites in hair, plasma, saliva and urine and in treatment studies.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)279-290
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Chromatography B: Biomedical Sciences and Applications
Volume660
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 14 1994

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry(all)

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