Simulation has been rapidly adopted within the medical community as evidenced by the fact that clinical care providers from all backgrounds (e.g., residents, physicians, nurses, anesthesiologists, ancillary staff, etc.) and all institutions (e.g., hospital, training centers, and medical schools) have incorporated simulation into their training and education curriculums. Although simulators are becoming a staple in clinical education, simulation is not a one-size-fits-all solution. Thus, the objective of the current panel is to combine the expertise of leading human factors and clinical care providers in the fields of learning, simulation, human performance, and human-system interaction to provide their insight and perspective on the following questions: What are the issues to consider when developing, implementing, and evaluating simulation-based training across a broad spectrum of training, education, and improvement applications in the healthcare domain? What are the contributions that human factors science and healthcare experts can combine to effectively develop, execute, and assess simulation-based training in hospitals, training centers, and medical schools?