SIVsmmPBJ 1.9 is an extremely virulent clone of the simian immunodeficiency virus SIVsmmPBj 14 that causes an acute lethal disease in pigtail macaques, with death occurring 6 to 8 days after infection. The disease is characterized by bloody mucoid diarrhea, lymphoid hyperplasia, and giant cell pneumonia. We have developed an in vitro model for the production of multinucleated giant cells (MGCs) in which peripheral blood monocytes rapidly fuse to form MGCs when cultured in lymphocyte-conditioned medium and antibody against class II MHC. We have tested the effect of SIVsmmPBj on monocytes in our MGC model system. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from normal healthy human subjects, when cultured in the presence of anti- class II MHC monoclonal antibody and SIVsmmPBj 1.9, but not either alone, resulted in the formation of MGCs within 4 days. Experiments using Transwell chambers indicated that such MGCs are formed by fusion of monocytes, not by virus-induced fusion of lymphocytes. SIVsmmPBj 1.9 is unique in inducing MGC formation in that other SIV and HIV isolates do not induce MGCs. Whereas SIVsmmPBj 1.9 grown in PBMCs was a potent inducer of MGCs in the presence of anti-class II MHC antibody, SIVsmmPBj 1.9 grown in CEMx174 failed to do so. Antibodies against IFN-γ and TNF-α significantly inhibited SIVsmmPBj/anti- class II-induced formation of MGCs. These results indicate that cytokines released in response to SIVsmmPBj 1.9, in conjunction with antibodies to class II MHC, caused fusion of monocytes.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||8|
|Journal||AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses|
|State||Published - 1994|
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