Signaling mechanisms regulating adult neural stem cells and neurogenesis

Romanus Faigle, Hongjun Song

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Background: Adult neurogenesis occurs throughout life in discrete regions of the mammalian brain and is tightly regulated via both extrinsic environmental influences and intrinsic genetic factors. In recent years, several crucial signaling pathways have been identified in regulating self-renewal, proliferation, and differentiation of neural stem cells, as well as migration and functional integration of developing neurons in the adult brain. Scope of review: Here we review our current understanding of signaling mechanisms, including Wnt, notch, sonic hedgehog, growth and neurotrophic factors, bone morphogenetic proteins, neurotransmitters, transcription factors, and epigenetic modulators, and crosstalk between these signaling pathways in the regulation of adult neurogenesis. We also highlight emerging principles in the vastly growing field of adult neural stem cell biology and neural plasticity. Major conclusions: Recent methodological advances have enabled the field to identify signaling mechanisms that fine-tune and coordinate neurogenesis in the adult brain, leading to a better characterization of both cell-intrinsic and environmental cues defining the neurogenic niche. Significant questions related to niche cell identity and underlying regulatory mechanisms remain to be fully addressed and will be the focus of future studies. General significance: A full understanding of the role and function of individual signaling pathways in regulating neural stem cells and generation and integration of newborn neurons in the adult brain may lead to targeted new therapies for neurological diseases in humans. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Biochemistry of Stem Cells.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2435-2448
Number of pages14
JournalBiochimica et Biophysica Acta - General Subjects
Volume1830
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 2013

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Adult Stem Cells
Neural Stem Cells
Neurogenesis
Stem cells
Brain
Neurons
Intrinsic Factor
Bone Morphogenetic Proteins
Neuronal Plasticity
Cytology
Nerve Growth Factors
Biochemistry
Epigenomics
Cues
Neurotransmitter Agents
Cell Biology
Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins
Crosstalk
Transcription Factors
Stem Cells

Keywords

  • Adult neurogenesis
  • Neural stem cell
  • Niche
  • Signaling

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Biophysics
  • Molecular Biology

Cite this

Signaling mechanisms regulating adult neural stem cells and neurogenesis. / Faigle, Romanus; Song, Hongjun.

In: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - General Subjects, Vol. 1830, No. 2, 02.2013, p. 2435-2448.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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