Shoulder motion and laxity in the professional baseball player

Louis U. Bigliani, Timothy Peter Codd, Patrick M. Connor, William N. Levine, Mark A. Littlefield, Stuart J. Hershon

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

We studied 148 professional baseball players with no history of shoulder problems to assess range of motion and laxity of their dominant and nondominant shoulders. There were 72 pitchers and 76 position players. Average external rotation with the arm in 90°of abduction was statistically greater and average internal rotation was statistically less in the dominant shoulders than in the nondominant shoulders, both in pitchers and position players. There was no statistical difference in forward elevation or external rotation with the arm at the side of the body in either group. Both dominant and nondominant shoulders of pitchers had greater average range of motion in forward elevation and external rotation (both at the side and at 90°of abduction) and less average internal rotation than those of position players. Regarding laxity testing, 61% of dominant shoulders in pitchers had a sulcus sign, as compared with 47% in position players. Also, this degree of inferior laxity was significantly greater in pitchers than in position players. Differences in range of motion and laxity exist in the throwing shoulder of athletes involved in overhead throwing motions and should be considered in rehabilitation protocols and surgical repair.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)609-613
Number of pages5
JournalAmerican Journal of Sports Medicine
Volume25
Issue number5
StatePublished - Sep 1997
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Baseball
Articular Range of Motion
Arm
Athletes
Rehabilitation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

Cite this

Bigliani, L. U., Codd, T. P., Connor, P. M., Levine, W. N., Littlefield, M. A., & Hershon, S. J. (1997). Shoulder motion and laxity in the professional baseball player. American Journal of Sports Medicine, 25(5), 609-613.

Shoulder motion and laxity in the professional baseball player. / Bigliani, Louis U.; Codd, Timothy Peter; Connor, Patrick M.; Levine, William N.; Littlefield, Mark A.; Hershon, Stuart J.

In: American Journal of Sports Medicine, Vol. 25, No. 5, 09.1997, p. 609-613.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Bigliani, LU, Codd, TP, Connor, PM, Levine, WN, Littlefield, MA & Hershon, SJ 1997, 'Shoulder motion and laxity in the professional baseball player', American Journal of Sports Medicine, vol. 25, no. 5, pp. 609-613.
Bigliani LU, Codd TP, Connor PM, Levine WN, Littlefield MA, Hershon SJ. Shoulder motion and laxity in the professional baseball player. American Journal of Sports Medicine. 1997 Sep;25(5):609-613.
Bigliani, Louis U. ; Codd, Timothy Peter ; Connor, Patrick M. ; Levine, William N. ; Littlefield, Mark A. ; Hershon, Stuart J. / Shoulder motion and laxity in the professional baseball player. In: American Journal of Sports Medicine. 1997 ; Vol. 25, No. 5. pp. 609-613.
@article{c4a4b0a33da4408a866bf420416eb7ae,
title = "Shoulder motion and laxity in the professional baseball player",
abstract = "We studied 148 professional baseball players with no history of shoulder problems to assess range of motion and laxity of their dominant and nondominant shoulders. There were 72 pitchers and 76 position players. Average external rotation with the arm in 90°of abduction was statistically greater and average internal rotation was statistically less in the dominant shoulders than in the nondominant shoulders, both in pitchers and position players. There was no statistical difference in forward elevation or external rotation with the arm at the side of the body in either group. Both dominant and nondominant shoulders of pitchers had greater average range of motion in forward elevation and external rotation (both at the side and at 90°of abduction) and less average internal rotation than those of position players. Regarding laxity testing, 61{\%} of dominant shoulders in pitchers had a sulcus sign, as compared with 47{\%} in position players. Also, this degree of inferior laxity was significantly greater in pitchers than in position players. Differences in range of motion and laxity exist in the throwing shoulder of athletes involved in overhead throwing motions and should be considered in rehabilitation protocols and surgical repair.",
author = "Bigliani, {Louis U.} and Codd, {Timothy Peter} and Connor, {Patrick M.} and Levine, {William N.} and Littlefield, {Mark A.} and Hershon, {Stuart J.}",
year = "1997",
month = "9",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "25",
pages = "609--613",
journal = "American Journal of Sports Medicine",
issn = "0363-5465",
publisher = "SAGE Publications Inc.",
number = "5",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Shoulder motion and laxity in the professional baseball player

AU - Bigliani, Louis U.

AU - Codd, Timothy Peter

AU - Connor, Patrick M.

AU - Levine, William N.

AU - Littlefield, Mark A.

AU - Hershon, Stuart J.

PY - 1997/9

Y1 - 1997/9

N2 - We studied 148 professional baseball players with no history of shoulder problems to assess range of motion and laxity of their dominant and nondominant shoulders. There were 72 pitchers and 76 position players. Average external rotation with the arm in 90°of abduction was statistically greater and average internal rotation was statistically less in the dominant shoulders than in the nondominant shoulders, both in pitchers and position players. There was no statistical difference in forward elevation or external rotation with the arm at the side of the body in either group. Both dominant and nondominant shoulders of pitchers had greater average range of motion in forward elevation and external rotation (both at the side and at 90°of abduction) and less average internal rotation than those of position players. Regarding laxity testing, 61% of dominant shoulders in pitchers had a sulcus sign, as compared with 47% in position players. Also, this degree of inferior laxity was significantly greater in pitchers than in position players. Differences in range of motion and laxity exist in the throwing shoulder of athletes involved in overhead throwing motions and should be considered in rehabilitation protocols and surgical repair.

AB - We studied 148 professional baseball players with no history of shoulder problems to assess range of motion and laxity of their dominant and nondominant shoulders. There were 72 pitchers and 76 position players. Average external rotation with the arm in 90°of abduction was statistically greater and average internal rotation was statistically less in the dominant shoulders than in the nondominant shoulders, both in pitchers and position players. There was no statistical difference in forward elevation or external rotation with the arm at the side of the body in either group. Both dominant and nondominant shoulders of pitchers had greater average range of motion in forward elevation and external rotation (both at the side and at 90°of abduction) and less average internal rotation than those of position players. Regarding laxity testing, 61% of dominant shoulders in pitchers had a sulcus sign, as compared with 47% in position players. Also, this degree of inferior laxity was significantly greater in pitchers than in position players. Differences in range of motion and laxity exist in the throwing shoulder of athletes involved in overhead throwing motions and should be considered in rehabilitation protocols and surgical repair.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0030931154&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0030931154&partnerID=8YFLogxK

M3 - Article

C2 - 9302464

AN - SCOPUS:0030931154

VL - 25

SP - 609

EP - 613

JO - American Journal of Sports Medicine

JF - American Journal of Sports Medicine

SN - 0363-5465

IS - 5

ER -