Response inhibition (RI) is a component of the cognitive control systems that support optimal cognition. Cognitive control deficits are well-described in schizophrenia, but are not well characterized in individuals at clinical high risk (CHR) for developing psychosis. Functional magnetic resonance imaging during Go/NoGo task performance was collected from 30 CHR youth, 23 early illness schizophrenia patients (ESZ), and 72 healthy adolescents and young adults (HC). Voxelwise main effects of group were examined (P < .005 height threshold, family-wise error-corrected cluster threshold, P < .05) for correct NoGo-Go contrast values and task-based functional connectivity. CHR and ESZ groups had slower and more variable reaction times (RT) on Go trials compared to HCs. Significant main effects of group in bilateral dorsal anterior cingulate (dACC) and right inferior frontal cortex stemmed from CHR and ESZ groups showing significantly less NoGo-Go activation, relative to HCs. Faster responding HCs had less functional coupling between dACC and medial prefrontal cortex, a default mode network (DMN) region during NoGo vs Go trials. This functional connectivity-performance relationship was not present in ESZ or CHR groups. The pattern of findings suggests CHR and ESZ groups were deficient in developing strong and consistent prepotent responding, based on their slow and variable motor responses and decreased engagement of dACC and right inferior frontal regions implicated in inhibitory control. Furthermore, only the control group showed a functional connectivity relationship consistent with greater response prepotency requiring more decoupling of inhibitory control regions from DMN regions during RI.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Psychiatry and Mental health