Background: Elevated levels of shear stress such as those that occur in stenotic arterial vessels can directly activate and aggregate platelets and thus contribute to the pathogenesis of acute arterial thrombosis. This shear- induced platelet aggregation (SIPA) is mediated by von Willebrand factor binding to platelet membrane glycoprotein (GP) Ib and GPIIb/IIIa. The chimeric Fab fragment of the monoclonal antibody 7E3 (c7E3 Fab) that binds selectively to GPIIb/IIIa is under clinical evaluation in patients undergoing percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA). This study was undertaken to investigate the effects on ex vivo SIPA of c7E3 Fab administered to patients undergoing PTCA. Methods and Results: Six patients received aspirin (325 mg) and boluses of heparin (12 000 U) followed by c7E3 Fab 0.25 mg/kg. Blood collected from each patient before and after heparin treatment and at various time points after c7E3 Fab administration was subjected to laminar shear stress in a cone-and-plate viscometer. Flow cytometry was used to quantify the extents of platelet aggregation and of antibody binding to GPIIb/IIIa. Results indicate that c7E3 Fab injection resulted in a rapid, extensive blockade of GPIIb/IIIa receptors (98.6±0.2%) and a 50% inhibition of ex vivo platelet aggregation induced by shear stress. c7E3 Fab also completely abolished the formation of large platelet aggregates ('large' refers to particles >10 μm in equivalent sphere diameter), which are presumably the aggregates of greatest clinical significance. Partial reversibility of the inhibition was noted within 2 days after drug administration, but even after 1 week, platelet function had not been fully restored. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that c7E3 Fab is a potent inhibitor of SIPA, which may be an important mechanism of its beneficial effect in the treatment of arterial occlusive diseases and in the prevention of thrombotic complications of coronary artery disease after angioplasty.
- platelet aggregation inhibitors
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
- Physiology (medical)