Shared dimensions of performance and activation dysfunction in cognitive control in females with mood disorders

Kelly A. Ryan, Erica L. Dawson, Michelle T. Kassel, Anne L. Weldon, David F. Marshall, Kortni K. Meyers, Laura B. Gabriel, Aaron C. Vederman, Sara L. Weisenbach, Melvin G. McInnis, Jon Kar Zubieta, Scott A. Langenecker

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    Abstract

    Major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder share symptoms that may reflect core mood disorder features. This has led to the pursuit of intermediate phenotypes and a dimensional approach to understand neurobiological disruptions in mood disorders. Executive dysfunction, including cognitive control, may represent a promising intermediate phenotype across major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder. This study examined dimensions of cognitive control in women with major depressive disorder or bipolar disorder in comparison to healthy control subjects using two separate, consecutive experiments. For Experiment 1, participants completed a behavioural cognitive control task (healthy controls = 150, major depressive disorder = 260, bipolar disorder = 202; age range 17-84 years). A sample of those participants (healthy controls = 17, major depressive disorder = 19, and bipolar disorder = 16) completed a similar cognitive control task in an event-related design functional magnetic resonance imaging protocol for Experiment 2. Results for Experiment 1 showed greater impairments on the cognitive control task in patients with mood disorders relative to healthy controls (P < 0.001), with more of those in the mood disorder group falling into the 'impaired' range when using clinical cut-offs (<5th percentile). Experiment 2 revealed only a few areas of shared activation differences in mood disorder greater than healthy controls. Activation analyses using performance as a regressor, irrespective of diagnosis, revealed within and extra-network areas that were more active in poor performers. In summary, performance and activation during cognitive control tasks may represent an intermediate phenotype for mood disorders. However, cognitive control dysfunction is not uniform across women with mood disorders, and activation is linked to performance more so than disease. These findings support subtype and dimensional approaches to understanding risk and expression of mood disorders and are a promising area of inquiry, in line with the Research Domain Criteria initiative of NIMH.

    Original languageEnglish (US)
    Pages (from-to)1424-1434
    Number of pages11
    JournalBrain
    Volume138
    Issue number5
    DOIs
    StatePublished - May 1 2015

    Keywords

    • Bipolar disorder
    • Cognitive control
    • Dimensional
    • Major depression
    • Mood disorders

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Clinical Neurology

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