Sexually transmitted enteric infections

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

Abstract

INTRODUCTION A wide variety of microbial pathogens may be transmitted sexually by the oral–anal or genital–anal routes. Sexually transmitted enteric infections may involve multiple sites of the gastrointestinal tract, resulting in proctitis, proctocolitis, and enteritis. These infections occur primarily in men who have sex with men (MSM) and heterosexual women who engage in anal–rectal intercourse or in sexual practices that allow for fecal–oral transmission. Anorectal infections with syphilis, gonorrhea, condyloma acuminata (human papillomavirus, HPV), lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV), and granuloma inguinale (donovanosis) have been recognized for many years. Over the past 2 decades, other sexually transmitted pathogens such as herpes simplex virus (HSV) and Chlamydia trachomatis have also been recognized as causing anorectal infection. Enteric pathogens traditionally associated with food or waterborne acquisition but that also may be transmitted sexually include Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba histolytica, Campylobacter, Shigella, and Salmonella. In patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), other opportunistic infections, including Candida, Microsporida, Cryptosporidia, Isospora, Cyclospora, Mycobacterium avium complex, and cytomegalovirus (CMV), may also cause intestinal disorders. Depending on the pathogen and the location of the infection, symptoms and clinical manifestations vary widely. Perianal lesions are usually caused by syphilis, HSV, granuloma inguinale, chancroid, and condyloma acuminata. Rectal infections cause inflammation of the rectal mucosa, commonly referred to as proctitis. Symptoms include constipation, tenesmus, rectal discomfort or pain, hematochezia, and a mucopurulent rectal discharge.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationClinical Infectious Disease
PublisherCambridge University Press
Pages371-376
Number of pages6
ISBN (Electronic)9780511722240
ISBN (Print)9780521871129
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2010

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

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