Sex-specific profiles of blood metal levels associated with metal-iron interactions

Byung Kook Lee, Yangho Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

The mechanisms by which iron is absorbed are similar to those of divalent metals, particularly manganese, lead, and cadmium. These metals, however, show different toxicokinetics in relation to menarche or menopause, although their interaction with iron is the same. This review focuses on the kinetics of these three toxic metals (manganese, lead, and cadmium) in relation to menarche, pregnancy, and menopause. The iron-manganese interaction is the major factor determining sex-specific differences in blood manganese levels throughout the whole life cycle. The effects of estrogen overshadow the association between iron deficiency and increased blood lead concentrations, explaining why women, despite having lower ferritin concentrations, have lower blood lead concentrations than men. Iron deficiency is associated with elevated cadmium levels in premenopausal women, but not in postmenopausal women or men; these findings indicate that sex-specific differences in cadmium levels at older ages are not due to iron-cadmium interactions, and that further studies are required to identify the source of these differences. In summary, the potential causes of sex-specific differences in the blood levels of manganese, lead, and cadmium differ from each other, although all these three metals are associated with iron deficiency. Therefore, other factors such as estrogen effects, or absorption rate as well as iron deficiency, should be considered when addressing environmental exposure to toxic metals and sex-specific differences in the blood levels of these metals.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)113-117
Number of pages5
JournalSafety and Health at Work
Volume5
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 1 2014
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

menopause
Blood
Iron
Metals
Cadmium
Manganese
interaction
Sex Characteristics
Lead
life cycle
Menarche
pregnancy
Poisons
Menopause
Estrogens
cause
Environmental Exposure
Ferritins
Life Cycle Stages
Life cycle

Keywords

  • cadmium
  • ferritin iron
  • lead manganese

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Chemical Health and Safety
  • Safety, Risk, Reliability and Quality
  • Safety Research

Cite this

Sex-specific profiles of blood metal levels associated with metal-iron interactions. / Lee, Byung Kook; Kim, Yangho.

In: Safety and Health at Work, Vol. 5, No. 3, 01.09.2014, p. 113-117.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Lee, Byung Kook ; Kim, Yangho. / Sex-specific profiles of blood metal levels associated with metal-iron interactions. In: Safety and Health at Work. 2014 ; Vol. 5, No. 3. pp. 113-117.
@article{7c6aa7fb999a40308733401003344f1d,
title = "Sex-specific profiles of blood metal levels associated with metal-iron interactions",
abstract = "The mechanisms by which iron is absorbed are similar to those of divalent metals, particularly manganese, lead, and cadmium. These metals, however, show different toxicokinetics in relation to menarche or menopause, although their interaction with iron is the same. This review focuses on the kinetics of these three toxic metals (manganese, lead, and cadmium) in relation to menarche, pregnancy, and menopause. The iron-manganese interaction is the major factor determining sex-specific differences in blood manganese levels throughout the whole life cycle. The effects of estrogen overshadow the association between iron deficiency and increased blood lead concentrations, explaining why women, despite having lower ferritin concentrations, have lower blood lead concentrations than men. Iron deficiency is associated with elevated cadmium levels in premenopausal women, but not in postmenopausal women or men; these findings indicate that sex-specific differences in cadmium levels at older ages are not due to iron-cadmium interactions, and that further studies are required to identify the source of these differences. In summary, the potential causes of sex-specific differences in the blood levels of manganese, lead, and cadmium differ from each other, although all these three metals are associated with iron deficiency. Therefore, other factors such as estrogen effects, or absorption rate as well as iron deficiency, should be considered when addressing environmental exposure to toxic metals and sex-specific differences in the blood levels of these metals.",
keywords = "cadmium, ferritin iron, lead manganese",
author = "Lee, {Byung Kook} and Yangho Kim",
year = "2014",
month = "9",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1016/j.shaw.2014.06.005",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "5",
pages = "113--117",
journal = "Safety and Health at Work",
issn = "2093-7911",
publisher = "Occupational Safety and Health Research Institute.(OSHRI)",
number = "3",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Sex-specific profiles of blood metal levels associated with metal-iron interactions

AU - Lee, Byung Kook

AU - Kim, Yangho

PY - 2014/9/1

Y1 - 2014/9/1

N2 - The mechanisms by which iron is absorbed are similar to those of divalent metals, particularly manganese, lead, and cadmium. These metals, however, show different toxicokinetics in relation to menarche or menopause, although their interaction with iron is the same. This review focuses on the kinetics of these three toxic metals (manganese, lead, and cadmium) in relation to menarche, pregnancy, and menopause. The iron-manganese interaction is the major factor determining sex-specific differences in blood manganese levels throughout the whole life cycle. The effects of estrogen overshadow the association between iron deficiency and increased blood lead concentrations, explaining why women, despite having lower ferritin concentrations, have lower blood lead concentrations than men. Iron deficiency is associated with elevated cadmium levels in premenopausal women, but not in postmenopausal women or men; these findings indicate that sex-specific differences in cadmium levels at older ages are not due to iron-cadmium interactions, and that further studies are required to identify the source of these differences. In summary, the potential causes of sex-specific differences in the blood levels of manganese, lead, and cadmium differ from each other, although all these three metals are associated with iron deficiency. Therefore, other factors such as estrogen effects, or absorption rate as well as iron deficiency, should be considered when addressing environmental exposure to toxic metals and sex-specific differences in the blood levels of these metals.

AB - The mechanisms by which iron is absorbed are similar to those of divalent metals, particularly manganese, lead, and cadmium. These metals, however, show different toxicokinetics in relation to menarche or menopause, although their interaction with iron is the same. This review focuses on the kinetics of these three toxic metals (manganese, lead, and cadmium) in relation to menarche, pregnancy, and menopause. The iron-manganese interaction is the major factor determining sex-specific differences in blood manganese levels throughout the whole life cycle. The effects of estrogen overshadow the association between iron deficiency and increased blood lead concentrations, explaining why women, despite having lower ferritin concentrations, have lower blood lead concentrations than men. Iron deficiency is associated with elevated cadmium levels in premenopausal women, but not in postmenopausal women or men; these findings indicate that sex-specific differences in cadmium levels at older ages are not due to iron-cadmium interactions, and that further studies are required to identify the source of these differences. In summary, the potential causes of sex-specific differences in the blood levels of manganese, lead, and cadmium differ from each other, although all these three metals are associated with iron deficiency. Therefore, other factors such as estrogen effects, or absorption rate as well as iron deficiency, should be considered when addressing environmental exposure to toxic metals and sex-specific differences in the blood levels of these metals.

KW - cadmium

KW - ferritin iron

KW - lead manganese

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84908054135&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84908054135&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.shaw.2014.06.005

DO - 10.1016/j.shaw.2014.06.005

M3 - Article

C2 - 25379323

AN - SCOPUS:84908054135

VL - 5

SP - 113

EP - 117

JO - Safety and Health at Work

JF - Safety and Health at Work

SN - 2093-7911

IS - 3

ER -