Sex influences immune responses to viruses, and efficacy of prophylaxis and treatments for viral diseases

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

The intensity and prevalence of viral infections are typically higher in males, whereas disease outcome can be worse for females. Females mount higher innate and adaptive immune responses than males, which can result in faster clearance of viruses, but also contributes to increased development of immunopathology. In response to viral vaccines, females mount higher antibody responses and experience more adverse reactions than males. The efficacy of antiviral drugs at reducing viral load differs between the sexes, and the adverse reactions to antiviral drugs are typically greater in females than males. Several variables should be considered when evaluating male/female differences in responses to viral infection and treatment: these include hormones, genes, and gender-specific factors related to access to, and compliance with, treatment. Knowledge that the sexes differ in their responses to viruses and to treatments for viral diseases should influence the recommended course of action differently for males and females. Editor's suggested further reading in BioEssays X-chromosome-located microRNAs in immunity: Might they explain male/female differences Abstract Females mount higher immune responses to viral infections than males, which can result in faster clearance of viruses, but also contributes to increased development of immunopathology. Responses to and the outcome of vaccination and antiviral drug treatments for viral diseases also differ between the sexes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1050-1059
Number of pages10
JournalBioEssays
Volume34
Issue number12
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 2012

Keywords

  • HIV
  • Hepatitis
  • Herpes simplex virus
  • Influenza
  • Sex difference

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)

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