Sex differences in the vaccine-specific and non-targeted effects of vaccines

Katie L. Flanagan, Sabra L Klein, Niels E. Skakkebaek, Ian Marriott, Arnaud Marchant, Liisa Selin, Eleanor N. Fish, Andrew M. Prentice, Hilton Whittle, Christine Stabell Benn, Peter Aaby

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Vaccines have non-specific effects (NSE) on subsequent morbidity and mortality from non-vaccine related infectious diseases. Thus NSE refers to any effect that cannot be accounted for by the induction of immunity against the vaccine-targeted disease. These effects are sex-differential, generally being more pronounced in females than males. Furthermore, the NSE are substantial causing greater than fifty percent changes in all cause mortality in certain settings, yet have never been systematically tested despite the fact that millions of children receive vaccines each year. As we strive to eliminate infectious diseases through vaccination programmes, the relative impact of NSE of vaccines on mortality is likely to increase, raising important questions regarding the future of certain vaccine schedules. A diverse group of scientists met in Copenhagen to discuss non-specific and sex-differential effects of vaccination, and explore plausible biological explanations. Herein we describe the contents of the meeting and the establishment of the 'Optimmunize' network aimed at raising awareness of this important issue among the wider scientific community.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2349-2354
Number of pages6
JournalVaccine
Volume29
Issue number13
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 16 2011

Fingerprint

Heterologous Immunity
gender differences
Sex Characteristics
Vaccines
vaccines
Communicable Diseases
Mortality
Vaccination
infectious diseases
vaccination
Immunity
Appointments and Schedules
gender
Morbidity
morbidity
immunity

Keywords

  • Adaptive immunity
  • Heterologous immunity
  • Innate immunity
  • Non-specific effects
  • Non-targeted effects
  • Reactogenicity
  • Sex differences
  • Sex hormones
  • Vaccines
  • Vitamin A
  • X-linked genes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Microbiology(all)
  • Infectious Diseases
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • veterinary(all)
  • Molecular Medicine

Cite this

Flanagan, K. L., Klein, S. L., Skakkebaek, N. E., Marriott, I., Marchant, A., Selin, L., ... Aaby, P. (2011). Sex differences in the vaccine-specific and non-targeted effects of vaccines. Vaccine, 29(13), 2349-2354. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2011.01.071

Sex differences in the vaccine-specific and non-targeted effects of vaccines. / Flanagan, Katie L.; Klein, Sabra L; Skakkebaek, Niels E.; Marriott, Ian; Marchant, Arnaud; Selin, Liisa; Fish, Eleanor N.; Prentice, Andrew M.; Whittle, Hilton; Benn, Christine Stabell; Aaby, Peter.

In: Vaccine, Vol. 29, No. 13, 16.03.2011, p. 2349-2354.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Flanagan, KL, Klein, SL, Skakkebaek, NE, Marriott, I, Marchant, A, Selin, L, Fish, EN, Prentice, AM, Whittle, H, Benn, CS & Aaby, P 2011, 'Sex differences in the vaccine-specific and non-targeted effects of vaccines', Vaccine, vol. 29, no. 13, pp. 2349-2354. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2011.01.071
Flanagan KL, Klein SL, Skakkebaek NE, Marriott I, Marchant A, Selin L et al. Sex differences in the vaccine-specific and non-targeted effects of vaccines. Vaccine. 2011 Mar 16;29(13):2349-2354. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2011.01.071
Flanagan, Katie L. ; Klein, Sabra L ; Skakkebaek, Niels E. ; Marriott, Ian ; Marchant, Arnaud ; Selin, Liisa ; Fish, Eleanor N. ; Prentice, Andrew M. ; Whittle, Hilton ; Benn, Christine Stabell ; Aaby, Peter. / Sex differences in the vaccine-specific and non-targeted effects of vaccines. In: Vaccine. 2011 ; Vol. 29, No. 13. pp. 2349-2354.
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