Males and females differ in the outcome of influenza A virus (IAV) infections, which depends significantly on age. During a typical seasonal influenza epidemic, young children (< 10 years of age) and aged adults (65+ years of age) are at greatest risk for severe disease, and among these age groups, males tend to suffer a worse outcome from IAV infection than females. Following infection with either pandemic or outbreak strains of IAVs, females of reproductive ages (i.e., 15–49 years of age) experience a worse outcome than their male counterparts. Among females of reproductive ages, pregnancy is one factor linked to an increased risk of severe outcome of influenza, although it is not the sole factor explaining the female-preponderance of severe disease. Small animal models of influenza virus infection illustrate that inflammatory immune responses and repair of damaged tissue following IAV infection also differ between the sexes and impact the outcome of infection. There also is growing evidence that sex steroid hormones, including estrogens, progesterone, and testosterone, directly impact immune responses during IAV infection to alter outcomes. Greater consideration of the combined effects of sex and age as biological variables in epidemiological, clinical, and animal studies of influenza pathogenesis is needed.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Immunology and Allergy