——In humans, the combination of all sexspecific genetic, epigenetic, and hormonal influences of biologic sex produces different in vivo environments for male and female cells. We dissect how these influences of sex modify the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of multiple drugs and provide examples for common drugs acting on specific organ systems. We also discuss how gender of physicians and patients may influence the therapeutic response to drugs. We aim to highlight sex as a genetic modifier of the pharmacological response to drugs, which should be considered as a necessary step toward precision medicine that will benefit men and women. Significance Statement——This study discusses the influences of biologic sex on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of drugs and provides examples for common drugs acting on specific organ systems. This study also discusses how gender of physicians and patients influence the therapeutic response to drugs.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Medicine