Severity level and injury track determine outcome following a penetrating ballistic-like brain injury in the rat

Anthony J. Williams, Geoffrey Ling, Frank C. Tortella

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Penetrating ballistic brain injury (PBBI) is a high-energy transfer wound causing direct damage to the cerebrum. Outcome is directly related to the ballistic's anatomical path and degree of energy transfer. In this study we evaluated differences in outcome induced by altering the 'projectile' paths and severity levels of a simulated bullet wound using a newly characterized rat model of PBBI. Severity levels (5, 10, and 15%) were compared across three distinct injury paths: (1) unilateral 'frontal', (2) 'bilateral' hemispheric, and (3) unilateral 'caudal' (including cerebellum/midbrain). Outcome was assessed by differences in mortality rate and motor dysfunction (e.g. neurological and balance beam deficits). Results indicated that outcome was dependent not only on the severity level of PBBI (P < 0.001, r = 0.535) but also brain regions injured (P < 0.001, r = 0.398). A unilateral caudal injury was associated with the highest degree of mortality (up to 100%) and motor dysfunction (64-100% disability). Bilateral hemispheric injuries were also potentially fatal, while the best outcomes were associated with a unilateral frontal injury (no mortality and 14-39% motor disability). These data closely resemble clinical reports of ballistic wounds to the head and further validate the rat PBBI model with the ultimate intent to investigate novel therapeutic approaches for diagnosis and treatment of the neuropathological damage associated with PBBI.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)183-188
Number of pages6
JournalNeuroscience Letters
Volume408
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 20 2006
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Forensic Ballistics
Penetrating Head Injuries
Brain Injuries
Wounds and Injuries
Energy Transfer
Mortality
Cerebrum
Mesencephalon
Cerebellum
Head
Brain

Keywords

  • Ballistic
  • Gunshot wound
  • Penetrating
  • Rat
  • Traumatic brain injury

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuroscience(all)

Cite this

Severity level and injury track determine outcome following a penetrating ballistic-like brain injury in the rat. / Williams, Anthony J.; Ling, Geoffrey; Tortella, Frank C.

In: Neuroscience Letters, Vol. 408, No. 3, 20.11.2006, p. 183-188.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Williams, Anthony J. ; Ling, Geoffrey ; Tortella, Frank C. / Severity level and injury track determine outcome following a penetrating ballistic-like brain injury in the rat. In: Neuroscience Letters. 2006 ; Vol. 408, No. 3. pp. 183-188.
@article{a800618d595a4834a6029df4d779e207,
title = "Severity level and injury track determine outcome following a penetrating ballistic-like brain injury in the rat",
abstract = "Penetrating ballistic brain injury (PBBI) is a high-energy transfer wound causing direct damage to the cerebrum. Outcome is directly related to the ballistic's anatomical path and degree of energy transfer. In this study we evaluated differences in outcome induced by altering the 'projectile' paths and severity levels of a simulated bullet wound using a newly characterized rat model of PBBI. Severity levels (5, 10, and 15{\%}) were compared across three distinct injury paths: (1) unilateral 'frontal', (2) 'bilateral' hemispheric, and (3) unilateral 'caudal' (including cerebellum/midbrain). Outcome was assessed by differences in mortality rate and motor dysfunction (e.g. neurological and balance beam deficits). Results indicated that outcome was dependent not only on the severity level of PBBI (P < 0.001, r = 0.535) but also brain regions injured (P < 0.001, r = 0.398). A unilateral caudal injury was associated with the highest degree of mortality (up to 100{\%}) and motor dysfunction (64-100{\%} disability). Bilateral hemispheric injuries were also potentially fatal, while the best outcomes were associated with a unilateral frontal injury (no mortality and 14-39{\%} motor disability). These data closely resemble clinical reports of ballistic wounds to the head and further validate the rat PBBI model with the ultimate intent to investigate novel therapeutic approaches for diagnosis and treatment of the neuropathological damage associated with PBBI.",
keywords = "Ballistic, Gunshot wound, Penetrating, Rat, Traumatic brain injury",
author = "Williams, {Anthony J.} and Geoffrey Ling and Tortella, {Frank C.}",
year = "2006",
month = "11",
day = "20",
doi = "10.1016/j.neulet.2006.08.086",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "408",
pages = "183--188",
journal = "Neuroscience Letters",
issn = "0304-3940",
publisher = "Elsevier Ireland Ltd",
number = "3",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Severity level and injury track determine outcome following a penetrating ballistic-like brain injury in the rat

AU - Williams, Anthony J.

AU - Ling, Geoffrey

AU - Tortella, Frank C.

PY - 2006/11/20

Y1 - 2006/11/20

N2 - Penetrating ballistic brain injury (PBBI) is a high-energy transfer wound causing direct damage to the cerebrum. Outcome is directly related to the ballistic's anatomical path and degree of energy transfer. In this study we evaluated differences in outcome induced by altering the 'projectile' paths and severity levels of a simulated bullet wound using a newly characterized rat model of PBBI. Severity levels (5, 10, and 15%) were compared across three distinct injury paths: (1) unilateral 'frontal', (2) 'bilateral' hemispheric, and (3) unilateral 'caudal' (including cerebellum/midbrain). Outcome was assessed by differences in mortality rate and motor dysfunction (e.g. neurological and balance beam deficits). Results indicated that outcome was dependent not only on the severity level of PBBI (P < 0.001, r = 0.535) but also brain regions injured (P < 0.001, r = 0.398). A unilateral caudal injury was associated with the highest degree of mortality (up to 100%) and motor dysfunction (64-100% disability). Bilateral hemispheric injuries were also potentially fatal, while the best outcomes were associated with a unilateral frontal injury (no mortality and 14-39% motor disability). These data closely resemble clinical reports of ballistic wounds to the head and further validate the rat PBBI model with the ultimate intent to investigate novel therapeutic approaches for diagnosis and treatment of the neuropathological damage associated with PBBI.

AB - Penetrating ballistic brain injury (PBBI) is a high-energy transfer wound causing direct damage to the cerebrum. Outcome is directly related to the ballistic's anatomical path and degree of energy transfer. In this study we evaluated differences in outcome induced by altering the 'projectile' paths and severity levels of a simulated bullet wound using a newly characterized rat model of PBBI. Severity levels (5, 10, and 15%) were compared across three distinct injury paths: (1) unilateral 'frontal', (2) 'bilateral' hemispheric, and (3) unilateral 'caudal' (including cerebellum/midbrain). Outcome was assessed by differences in mortality rate and motor dysfunction (e.g. neurological and balance beam deficits). Results indicated that outcome was dependent not only on the severity level of PBBI (P < 0.001, r = 0.535) but also brain regions injured (P < 0.001, r = 0.398). A unilateral caudal injury was associated with the highest degree of mortality (up to 100%) and motor dysfunction (64-100% disability). Bilateral hemispheric injuries were also potentially fatal, while the best outcomes were associated with a unilateral frontal injury (no mortality and 14-39% motor disability). These data closely resemble clinical reports of ballistic wounds to the head and further validate the rat PBBI model with the ultimate intent to investigate novel therapeutic approaches for diagnosis and treatment of the neuropathological damage associated with PBBI.

KW - Ballistic

KW - Gunshot wound

KW - Penetrating

KW - Rat

KW - Traumatic brain injury

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=33749521583&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=33749521583&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.neulet.2006.08.086

DO - 10.1016/j.neulet.2006.08.086

M3 - Article

C2 - 17030434

AN - SCOPUS:33749521583

VL - 408

SP - 183

EP - 188

JO - Neuroscience Letters

JF - Neuroscience Letters

SN - 0304-3940

IS - 3

ER -