Severe Cytokine Release Syndrome after Haploidentical Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Inflammatory cytokines released by activated lymphocytes and innate cells in the context of cellular therapy can cause fever, vasodilatation, and end-organ damage, collectively known as cytokine release syndrome (CRS). CRS can occur after allogeneic blood or marrow transplantation, but is especially prevalent after HLA-haploidentical (haplo) peripheral blood transplantation (PBT). We reviewed charts of all patients who underwent haplo-PBT between October 1, 2013, and September 1, 2017 and graded CRS in these patients. A total of 146 consecutive patients who underwent related haplo-PBT were analyzed. CRS occurred in 130 patients (89%), with most cases of mild severity (grade 0 to 2). Severe CRS (grade 3 to 5) occurred in 25 patients (17%). In this group with severe CRS, 13 patients had encephalopathy, 12 required hemodialysis, and 11 were intubated. Death from the immediate complications of CRS occurred in 6 patients (24% of the severe CRS group and 4% of the entire haplo-PBT cohort). The cumulative probability of nonrelapse mortality (NRM) was 38% at 6 months for the patients with severe CRS and 8% (121 of 146) in patients without severe CRS. In conclusion, CRS occurs in nearly 90% of haplo-PBTs. Older haplo-PBT recipients (odds ratio [OR], 2.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], .83 to 6.75; P = .11) and those with a history of radiation therapy (OR, 3.85; 95% CI, 1.32 to 11.24; P = .01) are at increased risk of developing severe CRS. Although most recipients of haplo-PBT develop CRS, <20% experience severe complications. The development of severe CRS is associated with a significantly increased risk of NRM.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalBiology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - Jan 1 2019

Keywords

  • Class II mismatch
  • Cytokine release syndrome
  • Haploidentical
  • Peripheral blood

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Hematology
  • Transplantation

Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Severe Cytokine Release Syndrome after Haploidentical Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

  • Cite this