Several studies have examined an association of anti-mullerian hormone to various risk factors for mortality, however, to the best of our knowledge, no study has reported a direct relationship between anti-mullerian hormone and all-cause mortality. Therefore, we examined the relationship between baseline anti-mullerian hormone levels and subsequent all-cause mortality in men during median follow-up of 9.4 (range = 0−13) years. We used the continuous National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys from 1999–2004 combined with National Death Index for vital status information through December 2011. Cox proportional hazard models were fit to estimate hazard ratios for all-cause mortality. Models were adjusted for age, ethnic background, body mass index, hypertension, diabetes, smoking status, c-reactive protein, total cholesterol, estimated glomerular filtration rate, serum estradiol, testosterone, sex hormone binding globulin, and androstenedione. Of the 989 men, 30 % were older than 65 years, 51 % were Caucasians, 33 % had hypertension, 27 % were active smokers, and 11 % had diabetes. Mean serum anti-mullerian hormone level of the population was 7.2 (6.3) ng/mL. During the 8943 person-years of follow-up, 164 (17 %) men died. In unadjusted analysis, each unit increase in serum anti-mullerian hormone level was associated with a 13 % lower risk of death (HR = 0.87; 95 %CI = 0.83–0.92). In multivariable models, the inverse association between serum anti-mullerian hormone levels and mortality remained significant (HR = 0.94; 95 %CI = 0.90–0.98) and was independent of confounding variables. Similarly, individuals in the highest quartile had significantly lower risk of death as compared to individuals in the lowest quartile (unadjusted HR = 0.13, 95 %CI = 0.07–0.25; adjusted HR = 0.36, 95 %CI = 0.16–0.81). We found an independent and inverse association between serum anti-mullerian hormone levels and all-cause mortality in men. The mechanism underlying this association is unknown. Further studies are needed to validate our findings in men and to examine this association in women.
- Anti-mullerian hormone
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism