The enzyme α-methylacyl-CoA racemase (AMACR) plays an important role in peroxisomal β-oxidation of branched-chain fatty acid and therefore is relevant to carcinogenesis. The involvement of AMACR in prostate cancer (CAP) is implicated by the recent observation that expression of AMACR is consistently and extensively up-regulated in CaP. This observation is of particular interest, given previous findings from epidemiological studies that red meat and dairy products, major sources of branched-chain fatty acid, are associated with CaP risk and from linkage studies that the AMACR gene region at 5p13 is linked to a CaP susceptibility gene. In this study, we hypothesize that sequence variants in AMACR may alter the risk for CaP. To test this hypothesis, we sequenced all five exons, exon-intron junctions, the promoter region, and 3′-untranslated region of AMACR in germ-line DNA samples of 96 probands from hereditary CaP (HPC) families. Seventeen sequence variants, including five novel (R118Q, V185A, P238S, Q239H, and L250R) and five known (M9V, S52P, D175G, S201L, and K277E) missense changes, were identified. Six of these variants are at conserved residues among the rat and mouse AMACR. Eleven of these single nucleotide polymorphisms were genotyped in a total of 159 HPC probands, 245 sporadic cases, and 211 unaffected controls to assess their association with CaP risk. Significantly different genotype frequencies between HPC probands and unaffected controls were found for several missense changes, including M9V (P = 0.03), G1175D (P = 0.02), S291L (P = 0.02), and K277E (P = 0.02). Haplotype analysis provided stronger evidence for association (P = 0.001). Furthermore, the AMACR sequence variants strongly cosegregate with CaP in HPC families (log of odds = 3.78; P = 0.00006), especially in the subset of families whose probands carry the "A-A" haplotype of M9V and D175G (log of odds = 4.34; P = 0.000008). These results suggest that sequence variants in AMACR may be associated with CaP risk.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||4|
|State||Published - Nov 15 2002|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research