Self-efficacy, outcome expectations, and diabetes self-management in adolescents with type 1 diabetes

Ronald J. Iannotti, Stefan Schneider, Tonja R. Nansel, Denise L. Haynie, Leslie P. Plotnick, Loretta M. Clark, Douglas O. Sobel, Bruce Simons-Morton

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The goal of this research was to develop and evaluate measures of adolescent diabetes management self-efficacy and outcome expectations that reflect developmentally relevant, situation-specific challenges to current diabetes regimens. Self-efficacy for diabetes management, expected outcomes of adherence, adherence to the diabetes regimen, and glycemic control were assessed in 168 adolescents (ages10-16 years) with type 1 diabetes. Factor analyses indicated a single scale for self-efficacy and two distinct factors representing positive and negative outcome expectations. Reliability and predictive validity of the new scales were supported. In regression analyses, self-efficacy and the interaction of self-efficacy with expectations of positive outcomes were significantly associated with diabetes self-management adherence and glycemic control in older adolescents. The effect of self-efficacy was greatest when adolescents had stronger beliefs in the beneficial outcomes of adherence. These brief measures can be used to identify youths at risk of poor diabetes self-management. Interventions targeting self-efficacy may lead to improved diabetes self-management.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)98-105
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics
Issue number2
StatePublished - Apr 2006


  • Adherence
  • Glycemic control
  • Social cognitive theory

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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