The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) and HSV-2/human papillomavirus (HPV) co-infection by self-collected samples compared to clinician-collected samples in human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1)-infected and -uninfected women from the Tapajós region, Amazon, Brazil. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 439 anal and cervical scrapings and cervico-vaginal self-collected samples obtained from 153 eligible HIV-infected and -uninfected women. Real-time PCR for HSV-2 and nested PCR for HPV detection were performed. A multivariate analysis identified risk factors for HSV-2/HPV co-infection. The anogenital prevalence of HSV-2 was 9.2% (14/153), HPV was 67.3% (103/153) and HSV-2/HPV co-infection was 6.5% (10/153). There was a significant overall agreement (95.5%, 11/133, kappa 0.64, 95% CI 0.38–0.90, p < 0.0001) for HSV-2 detection by the self-collected and clinician-collected samples. HSV-2 genital infection was more prevalent than anal infection in all participants. HIV-infected women had a higher prevalence of HSV-2 and HSV-2/HPV. No woman with a cervical squamous intraepithelial lesion had HSV-2/HPV co-infection. Risk factors for HSV-2/HPV were age ≤25 years (aOR = 10.07) and being single (aOR = 3.79). In general, young and single women are at greater risk for HSV-2/HPV infection. Self-collection can be a useful strategy for the screening of HSV-2 and HPV in limited-resource settings.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
- Pharmacology (medical)
- Infectious Diseases