SEIPS 2.0: a human factors framework for studying and improving the work of healthcare professionals and patients

Richard J. Holden, Pascale Carayon, Ayse P. Gurses, Peter Hoonakker, Ann Schoofs Hundt, A. Ant Ozok, A. Joy Rivera-Rodriguez

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Healthcare practitioners, patient safety leaders, educators and researchers increasingly recognise the value of human factors/ergonomics and make use of the discipline's person-centred models of sociotechnical systems. This paper first reviews one of the most widely used healthcare human factors systems models, the Systems Engineering Initiative for Patient Safety (SEIPS) model, and then introduces an extended model, 'SEIPS 2.0'. SEIPS 2.0 incorporates three novel concepts into the original model: configuration, engagement and adaptation. The concept of configuration highlights the dynamic, hierarchical and interactive properties of sociotechnical systems, making it possible to depict how health-related performance is shaped at 'a moment in time'. Engagement conveys that various individuals and teams can perform health-related activities separately and collaboratively. Engaged individuals often include patients, family caregivers and other non-professionals. Adaptation is introduced as a feedback mechanism that explains how dynamic systems evolve in planned and unplanned ways. Key implications and future directions for human factors research in healthcare are discussed. Practitioner Summary: SEIPS 2.0 is a new human factors/ergonomics framework for studying and improving health and healthcare. It describes how sociotechnical systems shape health-related work done by professionals and non-professionals, independently and collaboratively. Work processes, in turn, shape patient, professional and organisational outcomes. Work systems and processes undergo planned and unplanned adaptations.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1669-1686
Number of pages18
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 2013


  • SEIPS model
  • healthcare
  • patient and family engagement
  • patient-centred care
  • work system

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Human Factors and Ergonomics
  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation


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