Secondary efficacy endpoints of the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine against gastroenteritis in sub-Saharan Africa

Milagritos D. Tapia, George Armah, Robert F. Breiman, Michael J. Dallas, Kristen D.C. Lewis, Samba O. Sow, Stephen B. Rivers, Myron M. Levine, Kayla F. Laserson, Daniel R. Feikin, John C. Victor, Max Ciarlet, Kathleen M. Neuzil, A. Duncan Steele

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

The efficacy of the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (PRV), RotaTeq®, was evaluated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter Phase III clinical trial conducted (April 2007-March 2009) in 3 low-income countries in Africa: Ghana, Kenya, and Mali. In total, 5468 infants were randomized 1:1 to receive 3 doses of PRV/placebo at approximately 6, 10, and 14 weeks of age; concomitant administration with routine EPI vaccines, including OPV, was allowed. HIV-infected infants were not excluded. The primary endpoint, vaccine efficacy (VE) against severe-rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE), as measured by Vesikari scoring system (VSS, score ≥11), from ≥14 days following Dose 3 through a follow-up period of nearly 2 years in the combined 3 African countries, and secondary endpoints by total follow-up period have been previously reported. In this study, we report post hoc subgroup analyses on secondary endpoints of public health importance. VE against RVGE of any severity was 49.2% (95%CI: 29.9, 63.5) through the first year of life and 30.5% (95%CI: 16.7, 42.2) through the complete follow-up period. VE against severe-gastroenteritis of any etiology was 21.5% (95%CI: <0, 38.4) through the first year of life and 10.6% (95%CI: <0, 24.9) through the complete follow-up period. Through the complete follow-up period, VE against severe-RVGE caused by (i) vaccine-contained G and P types (G1-G4, P1A[8]), (ii) non-vaccine G types (G8, G9, G10), and (iii) non-vaccine P types (P1B[4], P2A[6]) was 34.0% (95%CI:11.2, 51.2), 81.8% (95%CI:16.5, 98.0) and 40.7% (95%CI:8.4, 62.1), respectively. There was a trend towards higher VE with higher disease severity, although in some cases the numbers were small. In African countries with high under-5 mortality rates, PRV significantly reduced RVGE through nearly 2 years of follow-up; more modest reductions were observed against gastroenteritis of any etiology. PRV provides protection against severe-RVGE caused by diverse rotavirus genotypes, including those not contained in the vaccine.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)A79-A85
JournalVaccine
Volume30
Issue numberSUPPL. 1
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 27 2012
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • G genotype
  • Gastroenteritis
  • P genotype
  • Rotavirus
  • Vaccine efficacy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Medicine
  • Immunology and Microbiology(all)
  • veterinary(all)
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Infectious Diseases

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