With improved survival afforded by highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), CKD has emerged as one of the primary comorbid conditions affecting HIV-infected individuals. Although CKD in HIV-infected individuals is classically thought of as a consequence of advanced HIV infection such as in the case of HIV-associated nephropathy, several factors likely contribute to the development CKD in HIV infection. These factors include genetic predisposition, age-related decline in kidney function, HAART-related metabolic changes, exposure to multiple nephrotoxic medications, and concurrent conditions such as hepatitis C or illicit drug use. Similar to the general population, proteinuria and impaired kidney function are associated with faster progression to acquired immune deficiency syndrome and death. Given the prevalence and impact of kidney disease on the course of HIV infection and its management, current guidelines recommend screening all HIV-infected individuals for kidney disease. This review focuses on the current guidelines for kidney disease screening and discusses traditional as well as promising strategies for detecting CKD in this vulnerable population.
- Cystatin C
- Estimated glomerular filtration rate
- HIV infection
- Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation
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