Sclera Force Evaluation during Vitreoretinal Surgeries in Ex Vivo Porcine Eye Model

Niravkumar Patel, Muller Urias, Ali Ebrahimi, Changyan He, Peter Gehlbach, Iulian Iordachita

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution


Vitreoretinal surgery is among the most challenging microsurgical procedures as it requires precise tool manipulation in a constrained environment, while the tool-tissue interaction forces are at the human perception limits. While tool tip forces are certainly important, the scleral forces at the tool insertion ports are also important. Clinicians often rely on these forces to manipulate the eyeball position during surgery. Measuring sclera forces could enable valuable sensory input to avoid tissue damage, especially for a cooperatively controlled robotic assistant that otherwise removes the sensation of these familiar intraoperative forces. Previously, our group has measured sclera forces in phantom experiments. However, to the best of our knowledge, there are no published data measuring scleral forces in biological (ex-vivo/in-vivo) eye models. In this paper, we measured sclera forces in ex-vivo porcine eye model. A Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) based force sensing instrument with a diameter of ~900 μm and a resolution of ~1 mN was used to measure the forces while the clinician-subject followed retinal vessels in manual and robot-assisted modes. Analysis of measured forces show that the average sclera force in manual mode was 133.74 mN while in robot-assisted mode was 146.03 mN.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publication2019 IEEE Sensors, SENSORS 2019 - Conference Proceedings
PublisherInstitute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.
ISBN (Electronic)9781728116341
StatePublished - Oct 2019
Event18th IEEE Sensors, SENSORS 2019 - Montreal, Canada
Duration: Oct 27 2019Oct 30 2019

Publication series

NameProceedings of IEEE Sensors
ISSN (Print)1930-0395
ISSN (Electronic)2168-9229


Conference18th IEEE Sensors, SENSORS 2019

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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