Scatter compensation methods in 3D iterative SPECT reconstruction: A simulation study

Freek J. Beekman, Chris Kamphuis, Eric C. Frey

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Effects of different scatter compensation methods incorporated in fully 3D iterative reconstruction are investigated. The methods are: (i) the inclusion of an 'ideal scatter estimate' (ISE); (ii) like (i) but with a noiseless scatter estimate (ISE-NF); (iii) incorporation of scatter in the point spread function during iterative reconstruction ('ideal scatter model', ISM); (iv) no scatter compensation (NSC); (v) ideal scatter rejection (ISR), as can be approximated by using a camera with a perfect energy resolution. The iterative method used was an ordered subset expectation maximization (OS- EM) algorithm. A cylinder containing small cold spheres was used to calculate contrast-to-noise curves. For a brain study, global errors between reconstruction and 'true' distributions were calculated. Results show that ISR is superior to all other methods. In all cases considered, ISM is superior to ISE and performs approximately as well as (brain study) or better than (cylinder data) ISE-NF. Both ISM and ISE improve contrast-to-noise curves and reduce global errors, compared with NSC. In the case of ISE, blurring of the scatter estimate with a Gaussian kernel results in slightly reduced errors in brain studies, especially at low count levels. The optimal Gaussian kernel size is strongly dependent on the noise level.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1619-1632
Number of pages14
JournalPhysics in Medicine and Biology
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 1997
Externally publishedYes


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Physics and Astronomy (miscellaneous)
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Radiological and Ultrasound Technology

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