This open-label study assessed the safety and immunogenicity of two doses (14 days apart) of an indigenously manufactured, killed, bivalent (Vibrio cholerae O1 and O139), whole-cell oral cholera vaccine (SHANCHOL; Shantha Biotechnics) in healthy adults (n = 100) and children (n = 100) in a cholera endemic area (Vellore, South India) to fulfill post-licensure regulatory requirements and post-World Health Organization (WHO) prequalification commitments. Safety and reactogenicity were assessed, and seroconversion rates (i.e. proportion of participants with a 4-fold rise from baseline in serum vibriocidal antibody titers against V. cholerae O1 Inaba, O1 Ogawa and O139, respectively) were determined 14 days after each vaccine dose. No serious adverse events were reported during the study. Commonly reported solicited adverse events were headache and general ill feeling. Seroconversion rates after the first and second dose in adults were 67.7% and 55.2%, respectively, against O1 Inaba; 47.9% and 45.8% against O1 Ogawa; and 19.8% and 20.8% against O139. In children, seroconversion rates after the first and second dose were 80.2% and 68.8%, respectively, against O1 Inaba; 72.9% and 67.7% against O1 Ogawa; and 26.0% and 18.8% against O139. The geometric mean titers against O1 Inaba, O1 Ogawa, and O139 in both adults and children were significantly higher after each vaccine dose compared to baseline titers (P < 0.001; for both age groups after each dose versus baseline). The seroconversion rates for O1 Inaba, O1 Ogawa, and O139 in both age groups were similar to those in previous studies with the vaccine. In conclusion, the killed, bivalent, whole-cell oral cholera vaccine has a good safety and reactogenicity profile, and is immunogenic in healthy adults and children.
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