This open-label, dose-escalation study evaluated the safety and efficacy of single-agent gemtuzumab ozogamicin, a humanized anti-CD33 antibody-targeted chemotherapeutic agent, for pediatric patients with multiple relapsed or primary refractory acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Twenty-nine children 1 to 16 years of age (relapsed disease, 19; refractory disease, 10) received gemtuzumab ozogamicin ranging from 6 to 9 mg/m2 per dose for 2 doses (separated by 2 weeks) infused over 2 hours. All patients had anticipated myelosuppression. Other toxicities included grade 3/4 hyperbilirubinemia (7%) and elevated hepatic transaminase levels (21%); the incidence of grade 3/4 mucositis (3%) or sepsis (24%) was relatively low. One patient treated at 9 mg/m2 developed veno-occlusive disease (VOD) of the liver and defined the dose-limiting toxicity. Thirteen patients underwent hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation less than 3.5 months after the last dose of gemtuzumab ozogamicin; 6 (40%) developed VOD. Eight of 29 (28%) patients achieved overall remission. Remissions were comparable in patients with refractory (30%) and relapsed (26%) disease. Mean multidrug resistance-protein-mediated drug efflux was significantly lower in the leukemic blasts of patients achieving remission (P < .005). Gemtuzumab ozogamicin was relatively well tolerated at 6 mg/m2 for 2 doses and was equally effective in patients with refractory and relapsed disease. Further studies in combination with standard induction therapy for childhood AML are warranted.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cell Biology