Rural–urban differences in dietary behavior and obesity: Results of the riskesdas study in 10–18-year-old Indonesian children and adolescents

Esti Nurwanti, Hamam Hadi, Jung Su Chang, Jane C.J. Chao, Bunga Astria Paramashanti, Joel Gittelsohn, Chyi Huey Bai

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Obesity has become a significant problem for developing countries, including Indonesia. High duration of sedentary activity and high intake of unhealthy foods were associated with high risk of overweight and obesity. The objective of this study was to compare the distributions of sedentary activity and dietary behavior with overweight/obesity risks between urban and rural areas among children and adolescents aged 10–18 years in Indonesia. This is a cross-sectional study. Data from a national survey in 33 Indonesian provinces (Basic Health Research/Riskesdas 2013) were analyzed. Multiple logistic regression models were used to calculate the odds ratio (OR) adjusted with all variables, such as age, gender, residency, education level, physical activity, and food intake. An urban–rural residence difference was found in the factors related to obesity. Daily caffeinated soft drinks and energy drinks consumption (OR = 1.12, 95% CI: 1.01–1.23) were related to risk of overweight and obesity in urban areas. Daily grilled foods (OR = 1.32, 95% CI: 1.22–1.42) and salty food (OR = 1.09, 95% CI: 1.04–1.15) consumption were significantly associated with obesity in rural areas but not in urban areas. Furthermore, sedentary activity was correlated with overweight and obesity among those who lived in urban and rural areas. Our findings suggest that education, environmental, and policy interventions may need to specifically target urban settings, where access is high to a wide range of processed and traditional high-sugar, high-fat snack foods and beverages.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number2813
JournalNutrients
Volume11
Issue number11
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 2019

Fingerprint

eating habits
obesity
Obesity
urban areas
odds ratio
Odds Ratio
rural areas
Indonesia
food intake
Energy Drinks
Eating
Logistic Models
Environmental Policy
high fat foods
environmental education
Education
Carbonated Beverages
snack foods
Food and Beverages
Food

Keywords

  • Adolescents
  • Diet
  • Indonesia
  • Obesity
  • Overweight
  • Rural
  • Urban

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Nutrition and Dietetics

Cite this

Rural–urban differences in dietary behavior and obesity : Results of the riskesdas study in 10–18-year-old Indonesian children and adolescents. / Nurwanti, Esti; Hadi, Hamam; Chang, Jung Su; Chao, Jane C.J.; Paramashanti, Bunga Astria; Gittelsohn, Joel; Bai, Chyi Huey.

In: Nutrients, Vol. 11, No. 11, 2813, 11.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Nurwanti, Esti ; Hadi, Hamam ; Chang, Jung Su ; Chao, Jane C.J. ; Paramashanti, Bunga Astria ; Gittelsohn, Joel ; Bai, Chyi Huey. / Rural–urban differences in dietary behavior and obesity : Results of the riskesdas study in 10–18-year-old Indonesian children and adolescents. In: Nutrients. 2019 ; Vol. 11, No. 11.
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