Purpose. The role of topical tranexamic acid in the management of anterior epistaxis in adult patients in the emergency department (ED) is examined. Summary. The use of alternative agents for the treatment of epistaxis before the use of nasal packing may be reasonable due to patient discomfort, potential complications, and the need for follow-up with a healthcare provider for packing removal. One such agent is tranexamic acid. Two published studies evaluated the off-label use of topical tranexamic acid for the treatment of epistaxis. The first trial compared the efficacy of a topical gel containing 10% tranexamic acid with a placebo gel containing glycerin for the treatment of epistaxis. The percentage of patients whose bleeding ceased within 30 minutes of the intervention did not significantly differ between the tranexamic acid and placebo groups (p = 0.16). The second trial compared the efficacy of cotton pledgets soaked in the i.v. formulation of tranexamic acid inserted into the bleeding naris with standard nasal packing therapy. Bleeding cessation occurred within 10 minutes in 71% of the tranexamic acid group versus 31.2% of the standard treatment group (odds ratio, 2.28; 95% confidence interval, 1.68-3.09; p < 0.001). Additional information is necessary to fully evaluate the role of topical tranexamic acid in treatment algorithms; however, the use of topical tranexamic acid may be beneficial in select populations. Conclusion. Topical tranexamic acid may have a role in the treatment of anterior epistaxis in select ED patients, though additional studies are needed to confirm its role in treatment algorithms.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Health Policy