We compared the nocturnal hemodynamic patterns of seven tethered monkeys (Macaca mulatta) with those of seven chaired animals to determine whether the overnight changes are comparable in the two conditions. In both groups, we found a consistent hemodynamic pattern characterized by an overnight fall in cardiac output and central venous pressure and a rise in total peripheral resistance that maintained blood pressure homeostasis. The pattern of overnight change occurred despite major differences in response levels: cardiac output and central venous pressure were significantly elevated, and total peripheral resistance was significantly reduced at all times (from 1800 to 1200 h the following day) in the chaired animals relative to the tethered animals. This difference was probably due to an expanded plasma volume in the chaired animals, because stroke volume was also significantly elevated. Because the nocturnal hemodynamic pattern occurred under both conditions, it is likely that it is a stable biologic effect, which is probably related to an overnight loss in fluid volume that is not replaced in animals that sleep throughout the night.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Physiology (medical)