Role of oral extended-spectrum cephems in the treatment of acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis

Antonio Anzueto, William R. Bishai, Sudha Pottumarthy

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Risk stratification is the recommended approach for treatment of acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis (AECB) to optimize the chances of clinical success. The suggested oral therapy for "simple or uncomplicated" AECB, which is predominantly a result of infection due to Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Streptococcus pneumoniae, includes advanced macrolides and 2nd- or 3rd-generation cephalosporins, in addition to the older 1st-line agents (aminopenicillins, doxycycline, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, and erythromycin). In light of increasing resistance of H. influenzae and S. pneumoniae to the older agents, the specific directed structural modification of the cephalosporin nucleus resulted in the development of extended-spectrum 3rd-generation oral cephems with enhanced β-lactamase stability and improved activity against Gram-positive pathogens (penicillin-susceptible S. pneumoniae and oxacillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus). Analysis of results of double-blind randomized clinical trials assessing efficacy of the extended-spectrum oral cephems published since 2000 demonstrates that both cefdinir and cefditoren have similar point estimates of success in comparison to their comparators (cefuroxime, cefprozil, or Locarbacef), when either the clinical cure or the bacteriologic response was analyzed. Thus, oral extended-spectrum 3rd-generation cephems, which retain antimicrobial efficacy against the traditional respiratory pathogens despite changing resistance patterns, offer excellent coverage against the key pathogens involved in simple or uncomplicated AECB.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)S31-S38
JournalDiagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Volume57
Issue number3 SUPPL.
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 1 2007

Keywords

  • AECB
  • Oral cephems

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases

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